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## Antisymmetric paramodular forms of weight 3

The problem on the construction of antisymmetric paramodular forms of canonical weight $3$ was open since 1996. Any cusp form of this type determines a canonical differential form on any smooth compactification of the moduli space of Kummer surfaces associated to $(1,t)$-polarised abelian surfaces. In this paper, we construct the first infinite family of antisymmetric paramodular forms of weight $3$ as Borcherds products whose first Fourier-Jacobi coefficient is a theta block.

We prove that there exist exactly eight Siegel modular forms with respect to the congruence subgroups of Hecke type of the paramodular groups of genus two vanishing precisely along the diagonal of the Siegel upper half-plane. This is a solution of a question formulated during the conference "Black holes, Black Rings and Modular Forms" (ENS, Paris, August 2007). These modular forms generalize the classical Igusa form and the forms constructed by Gritsenko and Nikulin in 1998.

In this paper we prove the indicated conjecture in the last case of known infinite series of theta-blocks of weight 2.

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.