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Regular version of the site

Article

Spontaneous pattern formation in superconducting films

Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. 2020. Vol. 32. No. 075403. P. 1-8.
W. Y. Córdoba-Camacho, da Silva R. M., A.A. Shanenko, Vagov A., A.S. Vasenko, B. G. Lvov, Albino Aguiar J.

Superconducting films are usually regarded as type II superconductors even when they are made of a type I material. The reason is the presence of stray magnetic fields that stabilize the vortex matter by inducing long-range repulsive interactions between vortices. While very thin films indeed reach this limit, there is a large interval of thicknesses where magnetic properties of superconducting films cannot be classified as either of the two conventional superconductivity types. Recent calculations revealed that in this interval the system exhibits spontaneous formation of magnetic flux-condensate patterns and superstructures appearing due to the interplay between the long-range stray field effects and proximity to the Bogomolnyi selfduality point. These calculations were based on the periodic in-plane boundary conditions which, as is well known from classical electrodynamics, for systems with long-range interactions can lead to field distortions and considerable discrepancies between results of different calculation methods. Here we demonstrate that similar spontaneous patterns are obtained for superconducting films with open in-plane boundary conditions (vanishing in-plane currents perpendicular to the edges of the finite film) and thus the phenomenon is not an artefact of chosen boundary conditions.