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Article

«Работы скорби» и формирование дискурса памяти в польской культуре конца XVIII- начала XIX вв.

The article is aimed at analysis of the process of development of the Polish discourse of memory at the turn of XVIII-XIX centuries, i.e., in the period immediately following the Partitions of the Polish-Lithuanin Commonwealth in the late XVIIIth century. The main tools of analysis are the psychoanalytic approach to culture, based on the concepts of trauma and mourning, as well as the theory of discourse by M. Foucault in its contemporary interpretation. The discourse of memory is interpreted as a response of Polish culture to the trauma of the Partitions which threatened the Polish national identity. After the Partitions there were several options for the future development of Polish memory and identity. The choice of any of them meant the choice of definition of a meta-object of discourse of memory, that is the answer to the question of what it was relevant to. One of the options was the "antiquarian discourse" of memory of the Commonwealth and the Polish people, which, subsequent to the Partitions, no longer existed. In other words, it was about the need to create a positive image of the Polish civilization for descendants who will consider it as one of the disappeared civilizations of the past. However, this form of reflection on memory did not become dominant in the Polish culture of the Partition period. The main direction of development of the Polish discourse of memory was the reflection on the memory of the Polish people, which continued to exist and needed historical consciousness for themselves. This option, in its turn, contained two possible directions of development. One of them meant development of a discourse of memory based on the political history of the Commonwealth and the need for its restitution. Another option was to appeal to the Slavic pagan pre-state origins, which had to be saved from oblivion and returned to the Polish people. In the process of discussing all these options and models, Polish culture created such a discourse of memory, in which many questions relevant to contemporary memory studies (memory and identity, memory and forgetting in culture, memory politics, memory institutions, memory and historiography, etc.) were posed. Development of discourse of memory was associated at that time with creation of various cultural institutions and practices that played a significant role in the development of the Polish national identity.