HIV testing among people who inject drugs in Ivanovo and Novosibirsk, Russia
HIV testing among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Russia has been documented to be low; however, few studies have been conducted outside of the major metropolitan cities. The aim of this study was to determine how many PWID were aware of their HIV serostatus and what motivators were associated with getting tested for HIV.
Our analysis describes HIV testing behaviours among 593 PWID in Ivanovo and Novosibirsk, Russia. Participants completed a questionnaire and consented to HIV testing. We used logistic regression modelling to determine demographic and behavioural correlates of HIV testing.
Self-reported history of HIV testing was 52% in Ivanovo and 54% in Novosibirsk. Prior knowledge of serostatus was very low among PWID who tested positive (3 of 102 in Ivanovo and 0 of 11 in Novosibirsk). The most common reason for testing was doctor referral, and the most common locations were government HIV/AIDS centres and prisons. HIV testing was rarely client initiated or led by a personal motivation for being tested.
HIV testing in Ivanovo and Novosibirsk is suboptimal, resulting in poor knowledge of HIV serostatus. More programmes to promote HIV testing among PWID are urgently needed in both cities.
Principles of Knowledge Integration. Principle of university and the principle of workshop
Management in Russia is as difficult to define as a profession as it is in other countries, and the question of what education is appropriate for a future manager is also difficult to define. Business schools in russia need to think more carefully about their curriculums and about what they should be preparing their students for.
As long as they call it University The author considers the pointlessness of choosing between historical models of university. Instead, he proposes to find what is happening to knowledge today and whether it is relevant for higher education. Obviously, the internet and modern communication technologies affect the character of knowledge and the attitude towards it. The decline of the national state means a change of the principal partner and client of science. Now it is the individual customer who determines user-friendly content and form of knowledge. University bureaucracy does its best to satisfy his desires. It is this bureaucracy, not scholars-professors, who embody university now. Current trends in know- ledge and university are similar in Russia and in the West (the Bologna reform as a realization of the managerial turn), despite of the huge degree of corruption and plagiarism in the former.
Empedocles’ theory of knowledge is a quite difficult problem, as the fragments and doxography give us rather contradictory data. On the one hand, according to Aristotle and Theophrastus, the Sicilian philosopher did not make any distinction between thinking and sense perception and he considered them to be mechanically determined. On the other hand, the true knowledge is the result of revelation from Muse. In order to reconstruct Empedocles’ theory of knowledge it is necessary to examine the fragments of his poems in their historical context. This approach apparently seems to be able to give an explanation of the originality of Empedocles’ thought.
The chapter explores the growing role of knowledge as a factor for development of modern societies. It examines the problems of international cooperation in the field, paying particular attention to initiatives of both the G8 and the EU.
Quality Innovation: Knowledge, Theory, and Practices presents a compilation of recent theoretical frameworks, case studies, and empirical research findings in the area of quality innovation. It highlights the theories, strategies, and potential concerns for organizations engaged in change management designed to address stakeholders’ needs. This reference volume serves as a valuable resource for researchers, business professionals, and students in a variety of fields and disciplines.
The question of sustainability in the open access movement has been widely debated, yet satisfactory answers have yet to be generated: How do we move from an approach entirely based on temporary projects to an approach based on community-based sustainable infrastructure? What kinds of social and technical infrastructures could support the Knowledge Commons? What values and services are being delivered, by which stakeholders, and for whom? What governance and financial models are possible? Given the global nature of scholarly communication, how do we ensure that the designs of the Commons are inclusive of voices from the global South?
This volume collects nine selected papers presented at ELPUB2018 Conference in June 2018 in Toronto. Each paper was carefully selected, reviewed and edited to bring to an international audience the latest contributions from researchers and experts in the field. In addition to the technical issues related to interoperability of systems, research workflow, content preservation, and other services, the selected papers address the design and implementation of a community-based research communication infrastructure.
ELPUB Conference has featured research results in various aspects of digital publishing for over two decades, involving a diverse international community of librarians, developers, publishers, entrepreneurs, administrators and researchers across the disciplines in the sciences and the humanities.
The results of research of different areas of personality of homeless men: values, life attitudes, activity, homelessness area is presents. The data indicate the presence of a number of characteristics inherent in varying degrees all homeless people. The data obtained can be used to build an effective program of psychological re-socialization of homeless people.
In 2006, Russia amended its competition law and added the concepts of ‘collective dominance’ and its abuse. This was seen as an attempt to address the common problem of ‘conscious parallelism’ among firms in concentrated industries. Critics feared that the enforcement of this provision would become tantamount to government regulation of prices. In this paper we examine the enforcement experience to date, looking especially closely at sanctions imposed on firms in the oil industry. Some difficulties and complications experienced in enforcement are analysed, and some alternative strategies for addressing anticompetitive behaviour in concentrated industries discussed.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.