Цена возраста: заработная плата работников в старших возрастах
The article focuses on the wage formation of workers in the pre-retirement and retirement age in Russia. For this, the authors analyze age-wage profile and wage differentiation within and between age groups. The study exploits the Sample Survey of Household Incomes and Participation in Social Programs for 2016 which has a large sample and covers all groups of employed in the economy. It measures wages payed during the year 2015, thus allowing estimates for annual as well as hourly wages. Multiple previous studies across developed countries come to consensus that wages tend to grow over age until late in life, though with decreasing pace. However, this pattern does not show up in Russian data. Earnings peak early in working life and then decline monotonically. By their pre-retirement age, Russian workers find themselves on the declining wage trend. Though this “deviation” from stylized facts has already been noted in the literature, we explore it using the new and more comprehensive dataset. In addition, our analysis deals with annual earnings as well as hourly wage rates, and it explores trends in hours worked over age. The findings suggest that wage differentiation tends to be higher among older age workers reflecting stronger selection into employment with age. Given the forecast of changes in the age composition of employment by 2025-2030 and assuming stability of the age-wage profile, we can expect non-trivial reallocation of the aggregate wage fund to the benefit of the middle age group of workers while the old age group is likely be unaffected.
In this paper we compare the positions of Russian State and Private Schools teachers: salary, mativation, educational practices. Monitoring of economics of edication data 2006-2011 are used. Research on the teaching profession in Russia shows that teachers continue to be among the lowest paid specialists. Despite this, recruitment is possible since teachers find the yearly schedule attractive, and this compensates somewhat for lower salaries. There is concern, though, about the conditions of their work and the inadequate amount of funding that is provided for essential supplies and infrastructure.
The article investigates how blended learning inspires students of different ages to be more motivated in the process of acquiring receptive and productive foreign language skills. The authors analyze the neurobiological and psychological characteristics of various age groups of people learning a foreign language. The results of this analysis lead to the conclusion that the age of a student is a defining factor of the necessity of information technologies use in the learning process. The authors argue that the younger the learners are the more IT-oriented they are. It means that neglecting new technology in teaching a foreign language to children, teenagers and young adults is not an option any more. Older students used to traditional methods of teaching a foreign language appreciate the use of online resources and tools. The combination of student-centered methods and modern technology is the quintessence of blended learning which serves as an effective teaching tool for EFL students.
An overview of literary sources is used to determine factors that account for differences in the role pay raises play for teachers in different regions. These factors include: regional economic structure; stage of economic development (growth or decline); share of public sector industries in regional economics; specific territorial characteristics resulting in discrepancy between average monthly wages and the real standards of living in regions. The paper has revealed a change to teachers’ pay at different educational levels in regions of Russia between 2011 and the first half of 2013. The level of teachers’ pay shows a trend towards reducing inequalities and polarization in distribution of regions by personal income. At the same time, purchasing power of teachers’ wage is growing more and more heterogeneous across the federal subjects of the Russian Federation. As compared to 2011–2012, when purchasing power of teachers’ wage was at the same level in more than 50% of regions, the first months of 2013 witnessed an increase in the number of levels, as well as in that of regions at different levels. Teachers’ wage varies significantly by its purchasing power across federal subjects that have achieved or almost achieved their teachers’ pay goals. The author proves the need for specific research to discover the role (including psychological one) teachers’ pay raise plays broken down by the subjects of the Russian Federation.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.