Is Universal Service Justified by the Public Interest? From the Early Days to the Digital Age
It is commonly accepted that universal service is clearly justified by reference to the public interest, and this understanding stems from the natural monopoly paradigm. However, telecommunications monopolies have never been ‘natural’, and the alternative to regulation has always been a competitive marketplace. The liberalisation movement had a chance to create a genuinely competitive industry but failed to do so. This article argues that the universal service dogma has played a significant role in the formation of the ordered competition regime of modern telecommunications, and explains this phenomenon in terms of public choice theory.
Article contains analysis of the decisions of the European Court of Human Rights on freedom of expression, in which the Court had to balance public interest against the protection of commercial structures from unfair competition or injury to their business reputation.
The publication contains materials of the conference dedicated scientific-technical problems in the field of Radioelectronics, telecommunications and computer engineering.
The publication is intended for researchers, engineers and graduate students.
ICUMT is an annual international congress providing an open forum for researchers, engineers, network planners and service providers targeted on newly emerging algorithms, systems, standards, services, and applications, bringing together leading international players in telecommunications, control systems, automation and robotics. The event is positioned as a major international annual congress for the presentation of original and fundamental research and engineering results.
The study of existing monitoring systems is topical, because at the present level of development the transition to information society and knowledge economy becomes one of the key elements of national strategy aimed to increase country's competitiveness in the international market. There are many index systems that study the nature of this phenomenon and compare countries by the level of digital development. To ensure objective evaluation of innovation capacity the analysis of current monitoring systems applied in measuring the development of ICT and e-readiness together with data collection was suggested.
Researchers of civil control are interested in public interest as legal category. Civil control is an observation, verification and appreciation in accordance with public interests by government. Civil control is exercised for the purpose defense and protection of the public interests.
The article contains the critical examination of Grinberg-Rubinfeld’s concept of economic sociodynamics (CES) and patronized goods from the position of liberal doctrines of the Austrian school. It reveals von Mises theory of history, where ideas occupy the central place and interests are pro-derivatives from them. It is shown that the notion of "public interest" is a dominant public opinion, which, of course, cannot exist as something separate from the individuals. Thus the holism inherent in CES is rejected. Public interest is not necessary represents something positive and ensuring progress. The public interest may be aimed against it. And outside public opinion it simply does not exist. Patronized goods with the exception of pure public goods become so not because they have need in the state, but because the state and interest groups need to take care of them. The state constrains free entrepreneurship, which only could provide efficient delivery of the most of the patronized goods. And the state is ineffective supplier of these goods. In general social liberalism from the perspective of the Austrian economic theory is presented as a new wave of statism
The article suggests the integration of a neural network as a parallel element base in a telecommunication system. In this case, the ability to learn or adapt to external conditions is applied as the main advantage. For telecommunication systems in conditions when it is possible, this ability will improve noise immunity, reliability, operability, etc. The article considers an example of the integration of a neural network into a discrete matched signal filter. It is noted that the use of parallel mathematical methods in signal processing leads to the maximum effect of increasing the quality parameters of such telecommunication elements
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.