The political economy of ‘ordered competition’ in European telecoms
This article discusses the current efforts of policymakers to spur development of telecommunications infrastructure. It argues that the policy of ‘ordered competition’, widely implemented in this sector, has formed a highly beneficial environment for major players, who have the ability to influence the regulatory machine. The system protects the status quo, impedes the efficiency of the market process and allows unnecessary public subsidy of the industry's development. The main alternative to this regulatory regime is structural reform of the industry and the formation of a genuinely competitive marketplace which could function without ex ante regulation.
This paper offers an outline of the perception of “transnational employment relations” in a legal context. It will analyse various doctrinal and legislative approaches to the definition of the phenomenon, as well as the usage of the terms employed in its naming, its key characteristics and classifications. The author will reveal and explore the reasons for the problems that arise in the interpretation and legal regulation of the phenomenon, and will suggest some possible solutions to them.
The paper will analyse several terminological aspects of the terms used in descriptions of and references to employment relations which could be seen as falling under more than one legal order (jurisdiction). The paper will also aim to prove the hypothesis that, from a legal point of view, a transnational employment relation can be described (and differentiated from a regular “national” employment relation) through the presence of elements in which “transnationality” manifests itself and the number of such elements in a particular relationship. From this viewpoint, we can divide all transnational employment relations into two groups according to whether the “transnationality” of its elements is connected with one (simple relationship) or more (complex relationship) countries (legal orders) except the observer’s county (legal order).
 The term “transnational employment relations” in the title and the opening parts of the paper merely serves as a starting point for the study and a time/space saver to make references more compact. It should not be seen as an ideal or recommended naming of the phenomenon in question.
This monograph aims at analyzing the minimum wage and 'effective contract' legislation in international context, taking into account both historical and modern peculiarities in general and with a particular emphasis on public service. This analysis being performed from a comparative viewpoint, allowed the authors to assess the legislative amendments suggested by the legislator against the labour legislation currently in force. It has also helped to throw light onto the gaps and conflicts in the minimum wage and 'effective contract' regulation and common errors in its enforcement. The authors formulated their own suggestions concerning further legislation development in this field. This monograph was prepared with information support of the "ConsultantPlus" electronic legal database system.
Workplace mobbing and harassment in Russia started to receive scholarly attention in 2000’s. This is relatively late in comparison with the majority of developed countries. Today research on this topic is still limited and mostly addresses specific aspects (sexual harassment against women, correlation between harassment and HRM policies, psychological portrait of a mobber, etc).
Some data on harassment have been collected while investigating more general topics – for example gender discrimination and human trafficking. Such studies show the peculiarities of this phenomenon in Russia and the public attitude towards it.
One of the most recent and comprehensive surveys on harassment jointly conducted by US and Russian scholars demonstrates mixed attitude towards mobbing and harassment, at least when they involve women. About 25% of respondents are inclined to take an escapist approach, saying that there is nothing particularly wrong with the harasser’s behavior. This is supported with the fact that as many as 43% of respondents are of the opinion that the harasser shall not be punished, and 26% of them put the blame on victims. As many as 24% of interviewees would advise the victim to avoid conflict and defuse the situation with humor, while 22% of them would advise the victim to resign. The number of those who suggest taking more reasonable steps – seeking help from their principal or a lawyer – falls below 20%. The authors of the study observe that by and large Russian people do not believe that harassment and mobbing deserve serious consideration.
At the national level, sociological research on harassment reveals a widespread tendency to assume that it is the victim who provokes the harasser (by means of a certain behavior, make-up, clothing, etc.) and that harassment and even violence is either a logical outcome of or a fair punishment for this.
Some differences have been found in the general attitude towards this issue when it comes to the harasser’s gender. A male harasser is treated with sympathy and considered just slightly too ‘passionate’ or too playful, while a female one would be accused of acting with impudence. This aspect shows that the traditional perception of women as ‘the root of all evil’ is still widespread in Russia despite all the political, economic and social changes that took place in the last century.
In today’s Russia the victim’s reaction to harassment is usually a passive one. People prefer to keep this embarrassing experience to themselves or to resign if things go too far. An intention to resist, to protect the victim’s rights and/or to sue the harasser is often perceived as a strange and disproportionate reaction to a minor issue.
It would have been interesting to compare these results with those concerning harassment against men. It would have been likewise interesting to investigate the relations (if any) between the statistics on harassment and mobbing, being them considered as two different forms of workplace violence. Unfortunately, no comparable studies have been found and there are reasons to believe that they do not exist at all. Apart from some scattered research projects, the data on mobbing and harassment come primarily from the press. A newspaper article is published from time to time considering a particular group that has become the target of male harassment (taxi drivers, chauffeurs, accountants, bodyguards, mid-level managers) or a mobbing occurrence in a particular sector (the army, the office, and so forth). Newspaper articles usually contain an overview of the opinions of various stakeholders on the problem, which vary from legislative initiatives to amend the Criminal Code - which still lacks some necessary provisions, for instance those allowing to protect men from being raped – to skeptical comments reflecting the widespread belief that the problem has been greatly and groundlessly exaggerated.
 For instance, a more or less consistent case law on sexual harassment emerged in the USA as early as in the XIX century, while the relevant legislation was developed in 1970’s. Research on mobbing as a psychological phenomenon dates back to H. Leymann’s works published in 1980’s. See also R.B. Siegel, A short history of sexual harassment, in C.A. MacKinnon, R.B. Siegel (eds.), Directions in sexual harassment law, Yale University Press, 2003, 1-39, and H. Leymann, Mobbing and psychological terror at workplaces, in Violence and Victims, 1990, vol. 5, 119-126 (where reference is made to the first studies on this topic).
 O.I. Osipova, Vzaimosvyaz organizatzionnoi kultury i fenomena harassmenta (Interrelation between organizational culture and the harassment phenomenon), in Chelovecheskiy capital (Human capital), 2012, no. 12(48), 28-30, http://www.imtp.ru/upload/medialibrary/1d0/1d001c5446d6033dead95e79694a8c44.pdf (accessed May 05, 2013).
 Based on the analysis of the papers published in Russian since 1990 (and collected in the Russian State Library databases: http://www.rsl.ru/ru/s97/s977242/, on the Federal Legal Portal “Jurudicheskaya Rissiya” (“Juridical Russia”): http://www.law.edu.ru/search/search.asp?docType=0 and in the Russian Index of Scientific Citation (RINTZ): http://elibrary.ru/project_risc.asp). The analysis took into account the variations in the Russian terminology used in different contexts and branches of science.
 See: O. Stuchevskaya, Harassment i rossiyskie jenschiny (Harassment and Russian women), in Vestnik obschestvennogo mneniya (Public opinion bulletin), 2008, no. 4(96), 43-49, http://ecsocman.hse.ru/text/33513026/ (in Russian, accessed April 28, 2013). This Bulletin is published by “Levada-Center”, a major Russian nongovernmental center of sociological and marketing research: http://www.levada.ru/. A presentation of the statistical outcomes of the same joint research project is available in English at the CSIS website: http://csis.org/files/media/csis/events/081208_csis_gender_presentation.pdf. In this paper, I use the findings of this almost unique research project as one of the major statistical and sociological sources.
 O. Stuchevskaya, op.cit.
 See f.i.: Ph. Vivian, The churches and the modern thought, London, Watts, 1911, 277-286 (in particularly, citations on p. 284).
 See: ‘Rossiyskie mujchiny sokrushayutsya, chto harassment obhodit ih storonoy’ (‘Russian men grieve that harassment passes them over’). A sociological research conducted by the Research center of the SuperJob.ru website, 08.09.2008, http://www.superjob.ru/community/kollektiv/18364/ (in Russian, accessed May 02, 2013).
 O. Stuchevskaya, op.cit.; S.S. Balabanov, Z.H.-M. Saralieva, Seksualnye domogatelstva na rabote v Rossii (Sexual harassment at work in Russia), in Vestnik Nijegorodskogo Universiteta (Bulletin of the Nijniy Novgorod University), 2010, vol. 1, 7-12, http://22.214.171.124:2139/item.asp?id=15142471 (in Russian, accessed May 02, 2013); Ya.I. Alferova, Sravnitelniy analiz socialno-psihologicheskih harakteristik sotrudnikov, podvergayuschihsya mobbing v organizatziyah (Comparative analysis of socio-psychological characteristics of staff members exposed to mobbing in organizations), in Sovremennye issledovaniya socialnyh problem (Modern Research in Social Problems), 2012, vol. 11(19), 42-50, http://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=18763977 or http://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/sravnitelnyy-analiz-sotsialno-psihologicheskih-harakteristik-sotrudnikov-podvergayuschihsya-mobbingu-v-organizatsiyah (in Russian, accessed April 29, 2013); etc.
 See: D. Prihodko, ‘Shef, trogay!’ Taksisty prosyat zaschitit ih ot seksualnyh domogatelstv passajirok (‘Chef, get going!’ Taxi drivers demand a protection from being sexually harassed by female passengers), in AiF St Petersburg newspaper, 26.03.2013, http://www.spb.aif.ru/society/article/56070 (in Russian, accessed April 28, 2013). See also: Z.A. Hotkina, Mujchiny – jertvy seksualnyh domogatelstv (Male sexual harassment victims), Center for Social and Labor Rights (CSLP), http://trudprava.ru/index.php?id=1534 (in Russian, accessed April 29, 2013).
 G. Bryntzeva, Mobbing dik, in Rossiiskaya gazeta. Federalniy vypusk (Russian Newspaper. Federal Issue), 2010, no. 5139(60), http://www.rg.ru/2010/03/24/mobbing.html (in Russian, accessed April 29, 2013). The article presents an interview with a director of the Clinical psychology department of the Scientific Center of Mental Health of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences.
 D. Prihodko, op.cit.
Beer was the drink of choice in many ancient societies and throughout the past centuries in large parts of the world. Right now, it is globally by far the most important alcoholic drink, in volume and value terms. The largest brewing companies have developed into global multinationals. The beer market is characterized by strong growth in emerging economies, by a substantial decline of (per capita) beer consumption in traditional markets, and a shift to new products. There has been a strong interaction between governments (politics) and markets (economics) in the beer industry. For centuries, taxes on beer or its raw materials were a major source of tax revenue for governments. Governments have also regulated the beer industry for reasons related to quality, health, and competition. The beer market is not only an interesting sector to study in itself but also yields important general economic insights. This book is the first economic analysis of the beer market and brewing industry. It comprises a comprehensive and unique set of economic research and analysis on the economics of beer and brewing. The various chapters cover economic history and development, demand and supply, trade and investment, geography and scale economies, technology and innovation, health and nutrition, quantity and quality, industrial organization and competition, taxation and regulation, and regional beer market developments.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.