‘To the moles’? A note on Isaiah 2:20
The corrupt Masoretic reading לַחְפֹּר פֵּרוֹת at Isa 2:20 is usually restored as לַחֲפַרְפָּרוֹת, which is interpreted as ‘to the moles’. The alternative interpretation of לחפרפרות as ‘to the bats’, first attested in Ibn Ezra, may in fact be preferable, as it is supported by the (previously ignored) evidence of the Fragmentary Targum, which use חפרפרא to translate Hebrew עֲטַלֵּף (‘bat’) at Deu 14:18.
Dieser Band dokumentiert die Multiperspektivität gegenwärtiger Septuaginta-Forschung. Die Beiträge behandeln textgeschichtliche, philologische und historische Fragen ebenso wie Aspekte der Theologie und der Wirkungsgeschichte. In text- und theologiegeschichtlicher Hinsicht sind Veränderungsprozesse in der Textentwicklung und der Interpretation autoritativer Vorlagen bemerkenswert. Philologische Untersuchungen behandeln Stilistik und Semantik der jüdischen Übersetzung im Schnittfeld von allgemeiner griechischer Sprachentwicklung und möglichem Soziolekt. Historisch orientierte Beiträge arbeiten Einflüsse der Zeitgeschichte auf die Übersetzung heraus. Die Texte der Septuaginta sind Hilfe und Herausforderung, die eigene jüdische bzw. christliche Identität zum Ausdruck zu bringen.
Der Sammelband bietet ein Spektrum gegenwärtiger Forschung an der Septuaginta, der griechischen Übersetzung der Hebräischen Bibel.
The article deals with the “most famous word in the Septuagint” (J. Barr) – παρθένος translating Hebrew עַלְמָה in Isaiah 7:14. The author concurs with those who suggest that the semantic difference between the two words was greatly exaggerated in the two thousand years dispute between Jews and Christians. A model of lexical analysis based on the Prototype theory (Eleanor Rosch and others) is suggested to be more appropriate for studying semantic relationship between an original text and its translation than the traditional one. It is claimed that the prototypical meanings of the words παρθένος and עַלְמָה, as far as we can judge from our corpora, almost coincide. Using the Greek Pentateuch as a kind of “Hebrew-Greek dictionary” the translator of Isaiah had to choose between two possible translations for the Hebrew עַלְמָה: παρθένος and νεᾶνις. The factors that might affect his choice are investigated. Probably, the word νεᾶνις was rejected because of its associations with the concept ‘servant’. The choice of παρθένος may have influenced the rendering of the Hebrew tenses by the Greek in Isaiah 7:14.
Gam as a marker of the result text unit of the prophetic announcement (PA) occurs in the judgmeent speech, hence it is a marker of the announcement of punishment which connotes the negative reciprocity fairness from the part of Yahweh. It takes initial position in a sentence and is followed independent first person pronoun; in most cases it is preceded by the conjunction wə. PA with gam + independent personal pronoun belongs to the style of exilic-postexilic prophets, who are familiar with the fully conceptualized idea of the covenant – reciprocal relationship between Yahweh and his people. This usage of gam in Ezekiel, other propetic books and Proverbs is probably influenced by the language of the Holiness Code (Lev 26).
According to most researchers Septuagint demonstrates development of messianism in comparison with the Masoretic text of the Old Testament. However some studies, primarily articles by Johan Lust, show that this view is supported by very weak evidence. This article analyzes the two key passages of the Septuagint Genesis 49:10 and Isaiah 9:5 (6), taken as an example of how much different can be approaches to the Greek text of the Old Testament and to how much different conclusions, researchers may come, applying different methods of text analysis. The final part makes a summary of basic methodological problems arising in the study of messianism in the Septuagint.
The Slavonic Bible was translated from Greek revealing textual correlations to the Septuagint. However in the majority of East Slavic manuscripts one can also observe indubitable Hebrew influences: there are numerous Hebraisms missing in the Septuagint while manifesting direct Slavic- Jewish contacts; they are introduced to correct the traditional Slavonic translation of the biblical text. These Hebraisms are based on the collation of the Slavonic Bible both with the Hebrew Torah and with the Aramaic Targums. The treatment of the Divine names (preserved in the Targums in their original, Hebrew form) allows us to demonstrate that borrowings from the Torah could be translated in the Slavonic Bible, whereas borrowings from Targums were reproduced in the Slavonic text in the original (Hebrew) form. The revision of the Slavonic Bible had several stages and was a long process. The author attempts to define a chronological stratification of different data related to this process.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.