Numerical optimal control for HIV prevention with dynamic budget allocation
This article is about numerical control of HIV propagation. The contribution of the article is threefold: first, a novel model of HIV propagation is proposed; second, the methods from numerical optimal control are successfully applied to the developed model to compute optimal control profiles; finally, the computed results are applied to the real problem yielding important and practically relevant results.
17th IFAC Workshop on Control Applications of Optimization CAO 2018
Yekaterinburg, Russia, 15–19 October 2018
The significance of medical care and treatment in social security law is analysed.
This collection of articles contain materials of the talks presented at the International Conference "Systems Analysis: Modeling and Control" in memory of Academician A.V. Kryazhimskiy, Moscow, May 31 - June 1, 2018
Because of the strategy of early diagnosis of arterial hypertension (AH) the majority of patients with prescription of the antihypertensive therapy (AHT) have grade 1 hypertension (AH1). Accumulated scientific evidence on the efficacy and safety of AHT for AH1 is insufficient for introduction of the active therapy, and the balance of harms and benefits is not clear in relation to AHT for AH1. The development of the next generation Russian guidelines for AH management in application to AH1 should take into account the totality of the scientific evidence as well as the perspective of the introduction of the national drug provision scheme. The best way to do it is to introduce more accurate diagnostic criteria for AH1 and the recommendation not to initiate the drug AHT for AH1 in cases of low cardiovascular risk.
Control of heart rate (HR) is an important target during treatment of patients with stable angina. In a number of cases it can be achieved by the use of β adrenoblockers. But often a necessity arises to enhance pulse slowing therapy with the use of combinations of drugs exerting negative chronotropic effect. We present here results of the CONTROL study (n=1777), conducted with the aim of studying antianginal efficacy and tolerability of the If channels blocker ivabradine used in combination with β adrenoblockers in patients with stable functional class II-III angina and frequency of attacks ≥3/week and HR>70 bpm. The use of ivabradine for 12 weeks allowed to achieve greater reduction of frequency of anginal attacks (by 4 per week, 95% confidence interval 3-6) compared with the group of usual care (treatment at physicians discretion). At the end of the study in ivabradine group 43% of patients had no angina at all, HR lowering ≤60 bpm was noted in 46% of patients (in the comparison group14 and 6%, respectively, p<0.001). Reduction of frequency of attacks of angina correlated with HR lowering, more with pulse rate measured by patients themselves (r=0.411, p<0.001), than with values measured at visits to physicians (r=0.266, p<0.001). Rate of lethal outcomes as well as rate of nonfatal cardiovascular complications (myocardial infarction, stroke, urgent revascularization) were similar in compared groups. In ivabradine group compared with usual care group there were less hospitalizations (5.0 and 8.6%, respectively, p=0.021), calls for emergency service (13.3 and 25.4%), and sick leaves (6.6 and 13.1%, p=0.018). Adverse reactions were noted in 130 patients (8.7%) in ivabradine group and in 29 patients (10.0%) in usual care group p=0.580).
This book studies the role of civil society organisations in the fight against HIV/AIDS in Russia. The book investigates civil society organizations’ contribution to social change and civil society development in post-Soviet Russia, and thus situates a specific type of civil society actors into a broader socio-political context and questions their ability to represent civic interests, particularly in the field of social policy-making and health.
The emergence on the Russian market of new forms of sales and services, like online-shopping, has formed a new sphere of communication - client/customer service to the actual and potential clients/customers by email. This area is actively developing in Russia for the last 10 years. On the basis of the analysis of the examples of e-mails, sent to the real people by the customer services of 115 different companies, the author formulates the main trends of the use of forms of address in this sphere.
Abstract The paper presents a meta-analysis of open-label antihypertensive effectiveness studies of indapamide SR (Arifon Retard, Servier Laboratories, France) in hypertensives. 24 Russian (n = 4952) and 4 foreign (n = 4634) studies were included in analysis. Russian studies show that indapamide retard both as a monotherapy and a component of the combination therapy leads to a 17,8/14,0 % decrease of systolic/diastolic blood pressure that is a reduction for 29.2 (95 % CI 28,9–29,5)/12,3 (12,1–12,5) mmHg in patients with uncontrolled hypertension. Baseline blood pressure was the main predictor of its reduction, and the most signifi cant reduction for 32,6 (95 % CI 25,5–39,6) mmHg was seen when the average baseline systolic blood pressure exceeded 170 mmHg. Antihypertensive effi cacy of indapamide retard was similar in Russian and foreign studies. However, incidence of therapy-related side effects was higher in Russian studies than in foreign ones (5,9 and 3,3 % respectively, p < 0,001). Therefore, meta-analysis based on the data of open Russian studies confi rms the antihypertensive effectiveness of indapamide retard and demonstrates the comparability of the results to those found in multicenter foreign studies.