Facial thermal variations: A new marker of emotional arousal
Functional infrared thermal imaging (fITI) is considered a promising method to measure emotional autonomic responses through facial cutaneous thermal variations. However, the facial thermal response to emotions still needs to be investigated within the framework of the dimensional approach to emotions. The main aim of this study was to assess how the facial thermal variations index the emotional arousal and valence dimensions of visual stimuli. Twenty-four participants were presented with three groups of standardized emotional pictures (unpleasant, neutral and pleasant) from the International Affective Picture System. Facial temperature was recorded at the nose tip, an important region of interest for facial thermal variations, and compared to electrodermal responses, a robust index of emotional arousal. Both types of responses were also compared to subjective ratings of pictures. An emotional arousal effect was found on the amplitude and latency of thermal responses and on the amplitude and frequency of electrodermal responses. The participants showed greater thermal and dermal responses to emotional than to neutral pictures with no difference between pleasant and unpleasant ones. Thermal responses correlated and the dermal ones tended to correlate with subjective ratings. Finally, in the emotional conditions compared to the neutral one, the frequency of simultaneous thermal and dermal responses increased while both thermal or dermal isolated responses decreased. Overall, this study brings convergent arguments to consider fITI as a promising method reflecting the arousal dimension of emotional stimulation and, consequently, as a credible alternative to the classical recording of electrodermal activity. The present research provides an original way to unveil autonomic implication in emotional processes and opens new perspectives to measure them in touchless conditions.
This paper considers the ways in which Leon Petrażycki and Eugen Ehrlich employed the psychological notion of emotions in defining the law. Both scholars defined the law by referring to special kinds of emotions: bilateral emotions in Petrażycki’s conception and repulsive emotions of experiencing the wrong behavior of other people, according to Ehrlich’s legal sociology. On the basis of a comparison between the theories of Petrażycki and Ehrlich, the author asserts that both theories hinge on similar methodologies and philosophies. This approach has evident affinities with the conception of law developed by Axel Hägerström and other Scandinavian realists. This analysis suggests a parallel in the development of the realist, sociological and psychological approaches to the law in the first decades of the twentieth century, uncovering certain trends in legal scholarship that underpinned this development.
The current study addressed the hypothesis that empathy and the restriction of facial muscles of observers can influence recognition of emotional facial expressions. A sample of 74 participants recognized the subjective onset of emotional facial expressions (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, surprise, and neutral) in a series of morphed face photographs showing a gradual change (frame by frame) from one expression to another. The high-empathy (as measured by the Empathy Quotient) participants recognized emotional facial expressions at earlier photographs from the series than did low-empathy ones, but there was no difference in the exploration time. Restriction of facial muscles of observers (with plasters and a stick in mouth) did not influence the responses. We discuss these findings in the context of the embodied simulation theory and previous data on empathy
Activation of the limbic structures, and above all the amygdala, is believed to be evidence of a subjective emotional experience. However, a recent paper published by Boubela and colleagues (Boubela et al, 2015) discredits most of the fMRI research concerning BOLD-signal changes in the amygdala region. It was revealed that the BOLD signal increase during perception of affective stimuli might take its origin not from the grey matter itself, but from a large vessel situated near the amygdala: the basal vein of Rothental. In the present research, we attempted to estimate the contribution of veins and venules located near amygdala into BOLD signal changes from the region of interest. We found no systematic increase of BOLD signal in the group of veins within the region of interest in comparison with the BOLD signal in the actual gray matter of the amygdala. At the same time, correlations were found between the BOLD signal in the vessels and the gray matter. The obtained results allow us to interpret the BOLD signal from veins and venules in the region of interest as non systematic noise capable of masking or weakening the observed experimental effects. The method used in this work can be recommended for further fMRI studies of the amygdala.
The article explores the ways of displaying sadness in the Russian language image of the world. According to the Russian National Corpus we can see that predicates applicable to sadness vary with the position in the syntactic structure. As a semantic object, sadness is a feeling, shared, or hidden, as a semantic subject it attacks, covers, makes gloomy. In the metaphoric mapping sadness is defi ned in relation to a hostile force, beast, liquid, fi re, fog, and disease. By analogy with liquid it rushes and fills; by analogy with beast it gnaws and hurts, by analogy with fog it dims eyes and dissipates, by analogy with disease it must be cured. Such use becomes so common in the Russian language that native speakers don’t pay attention to metaphorical expressions like dispel the sadness but take them almost for the authentic characteristic of sadness.
In this chapter, I argue that the Durkheimian theory of the sacred is a crucial yet not fully recognized resource for cognitive sociology. It contains not only a theory of culture (which is acknowledged in contemporary sociology), but also a vision of culture-cognition relations. Thus, Durkheimian cultural sociology allows us to understand the crucial role the sacred/profane opposition plays in structuring culture, perception and thought. Based on a number of theories, I also show how another opposition – between the pure and impure modes of the sacred, allows us to explain dynamic features of the sacred and eventually provides a basic model of social change. While explicating this vision and resultant opportunities for sociological analysis I also criticize ‘cognition apart from culture’ approaches established within cognitive sociology. I argue, thus, that culture not only participates in cognition but is an intrinsic ingredient of the human mind. Culture is not a chaotic and fragmented set of elements, as some sociologists imply to a greater or lesser degree, but a system; and as such it is an inner environment for human thought and social action. This system, however, is governed not by formal logic, as some critics of the autonomy of culture presuppose, but by concrete configurations of emotionally-charged categories, created and re-created in social interactions.
The article aims at analyzing the means of expression of feelings and emotional states in German children’s literature in the works of Kirsten Boie and at identifying the frequency of use of these means at four levels of the language: phonetic, morphological, lexical and syntactic, which will help to determine the most used means of expressing emotiveness at each of the analyzed levels of the language. The research was carried out on the material of the following works of the German writer: King-Kong, das Schulschwein (1995); King-Kong, Allerhand und mehr (2004); Verflixt – ein Nix! (2003); Nix wie weg (2013); Jenny ist meistens schön friedlich (2012); Sophies schlimme Briefe (2011); Paule ist ein Glücksgriff (2010); Die liebe Familie (2004). The total text volume was 1,453 pages. 4,441 units of analysis served as the empirical material (2,342 at the phonetic level, 134 at the morphologi-cal level, 1,131 at the lexical level, 834 at the syntactic level). The analysis of the category of emotiveness was carried out at the pho-netic, morphological, lexical and syntactic levels of the language using the methods of integral text analysis, contextual analysis and a descriptive method. To contrast normal speech and speech in a state of emotional tension, an analysis of the lexical-semantic and syntactic shifts of emotional speech was conducted, as well as a combinatorial semantic analysis. The method of emotive valence was used to study language tools and their combinations in the texts. The quantitative analysis method was used to determine the most frequently used means of expressing emotiveness at each of the studied levels of the language. The following results were ob-tained. First and foremost, emotions in the works of Kirsten Boie are expressed with the help of phonetic (graphical) means: excla-mation mark, italics and full stop. At the lexical level, the priority is mostly given to stylistically colored synonyms, colloquial vo-cabulary and interjections. To describe the observed emotional states, the priority is given to verbs of speaking used with adverbs expressing some emotional states. At the syntactic level, emotions are usually expressed with the help of rhetorical exclamation, repetition, parceling and inversion. The morphological means are used very rarely. Interestingly, the same emotions and feelings can be expressed with the help of different means of the language and, vice versa, the same expressive language means can convey dif-ferent, sometimes opposite, emotions and emotional states. It should also be noted that the analyzed methods do not always directly convey the emotional state of the characters, sometimes they help to express the emotional background and the tonality of fiction books.
Spanning Europe, Asia and the Pacific, Encounters with Emotions investigates experiences of face-to-face transcultural encounters from the seventeenth century to the present and the emotional dynamics that helped to shape them. Each of the case studies collected here investigates fascinating historiographical questions that arise from the study of emotion, from the strategies people have used to interpret and understand each other’s emotions to the roles that emotions have played in obstructing communication across cultural divides. Together, they explore the cultural aspects of nature as well as the bodily dimensions of nurture and trace the historical trajectories that shape our understandings of current cultural boundaries and effects of globalization.