The final chapter of Vygotsky’s Thinking and Speech: A reader’s guide
The seventh and last chapter of Vygotsky's Thinking and Speech
(1934) is generally considered as his final word in psychology. It
is a long chapter with a complex argumentative structure in which
Vygotsky gives his view on the relationship between thinking and
speech. Vygotsky's biographers have stated that the chapter was
dictated in the final months of Vygotsky's life when his health was
rapidly deteriorating. Although the chapter is famous, its structure
has never been analyzed in any detail. In the present articlewe reveal
its rhetorical structure and show how Vygotsky drew on many hitherto
unrevealed sources to convince the reader of his viewpoint.
The author refl ects upon the book The Sources of cultural-historical psychology: philosophical-humanitarian context by V. Zinchenko, B. Pruzhinin, T. Schedrina. Moscow, 2010.
In this article the types and methods of teaching are reviewed with respect to psychological characteristics of a potential student.
The form whose main function is to express indirect commands, called the third person Imperative, Jussive or Exhortative, when compared to the prototypical (second person) Imperative, shows semantic and formal similarities and distinctions at the same time. The study describes formal and functional patterns of Jussive and places this category within the typology of the related categories, such as Imperative and Optative, based on data from six East Caucasian languages (Archi, Agul, Akhvakh, Chechen, Icari and Kumyk). Five formal patterns of Jussive are attested in these languages, including a specialized form, constructions derived from want, from tell him to do and from make him do and the Optative. Jussive forms may express such meanings as third person command, indirect causation, permission, indifference towards the accomplishment of an action and an assumption. While the Jussive is crucially different from the second person Imperative in that it introduces a third participant, this article shows that it is the addressee, not a third person, who is the central participant of a Jussive situation from both formal and functional points of view.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
The results of research of different areas of personality of homeless men: values, life attitudes, activity, homelessness area is presents. The data indicate the presence of a number of characteristics inherent in varying degrees all homeless people. The data obtained can be used to build an effective program of psychological re-socialization of homeless people.
The present article continues the investigation of the Soqotri verbal system undertaken by the Russian-Soqotri fieldwork team. The article focuses on the so-called “weak” and “geminated” roots in the basic stem. The investigation is based on the analysis of full paradigms (perfect, imperfect and jussive) of more than 170 “weak” and “geminated” Soqotri verbs.