Официальная помощь развитию: тенденции последнего десятилетия
Active growth of development assistance during the last decade gave a birth to the concept of increasing concentration of donor’s attention on developing countries’ needs and fairer allocation of development aid. Based on the OECD DAC data from 2008 to 2017 the article analyzes the structure of official development aid by donors, geographical distribution, instruments, channels and forms of development aid after the crisis of 2008-2009 in order to test the soundness of this concept. First, analysis of structure of aid by donors shows increasing role of new donors, including Arab countries, and private donors. Giving unpredictability of Arab aid, this trend may not be sustainable. Second, examination of main recipient groups demonstrates reduction of share of Official Development Assistance (ODA) directed to the least developed countries, although concentration on the 8 largest recipients decreased. Third, study of the instruments shows decrease of grants’ share in ODA, and still large share of grants allocated to upper-miidle income recipients. Although DAC countries made efforts aimed at stimulation of disbursement of grants and softening of loan terms, current steps are not enough to change the trend. Fourth, analysis of forms of ODA demonstrates increasing share of in-donor ODA expenditures, mainly due to growing refugees costs. Also it shows that growing share of ODA allocated to the least developed countries, highlighted by the previous researches, is to a large extent associated with humanitarian aid and debt actions, and not with the aid aimed at financing development. Furthermore, it is shown that expenditures on development, which is measured by country programmable aid (CPA) decreases during the last decade, which is an indicator of decreasing attention to recipient needs.
Thus, comparison of directions and structure of aid before and after financial crisis introduces new points which support the idea of donor selfishness and the need to create additional incentives that would allow for the distribution of development assistance in favor of the countries that need it most.