Взаимосвязь взрослой и детской бедности с психологическими характеристиками личности
In this paper examines the effects of low socioeconomic status in adulthood and in childhood on psychological characteristics, such as individual values, self-efficacy, self-esteem, psychological well-being and trust. The sample included people with low socio-economic status (namely poors) (N=162) and non-poor (N=188). Measurement of children's socio-economic status was carried out by retrospective assessment. The results showed that values and self-esteem differ depending on the adult SES. The results revealed the significant effect of adult and childhood SES for trust and life satisfaction. The analysis revealed that adult status had a significant impact on trust only in the groups of those who did not experience poverty in childhood, i.e. the group with average levels of wealth in childhood, and the wealthy group. In conclusion, our study revealed the impact of childhood and adult SES on various individual psychological characteristics.
The book includes proceedings of the conference “Business. Society. Human” (October 30–31, 2013, Moscow) organized by National Research University Higher School of Economics. The purpose of the conference: interdisciplinary analysis of actual problems of studying business in the social sciences: the relationship between business and society; social capital and trust; business and corporate culture; individual, group and organization in business; problems and prospects of business education and business consulting, etc. The book present the results of researches of trust and social capital carried out in various countries in Europe, Asia and in Russia. Authors are well-known sociologists, psychologists and economists. The results of these researches were presented at the conference. The papers are published as they were submitted by the author.
The article examines differences between two Russian regions – Moscow and Bashkortostan – through the following socio-psychological indicators: perceived social capital, trust, civil identity, life satisfaction, and economic attitudes.
The article presents the results of study dedicated to interrelation of trust, cooperative behavior and the size of the winning prize in the multi-way decision modified prisoner's dilemma. The experiment was organized using a specially designed computer program application. The study involved six groups of participants and each group was consisted of 7 players. The experiment consisted of a 15-series and included preliminary and final testing. The study found that the cooperative behavior within the members in the group had fallen down during the 11-series, but there was a tendency to continuously improving it. The trust level of an individual and his/her choice of cooperative strategy in the first series of the experiment are interrelated. Generalized trust is a rather stable construct, but it does not remain unchanged with the actual reduction of cooperative behavior.
The multi-author book is devoted to research challenges of regulatory role of trust and distrust in social life, that is for the first time considered to be the factor of civil society shaping. This book represents analysis of theoretical and methodological problems of trust and distrusts research, provides the research results on the role of trust in civil society life, particularly, cultural peculiarities of trust in this society. In distinct sections trust is supposed to be the factor of economic development, as well as the basis of social capital. The final section is devoted to the new research trend that is trust or distrust to social-technical systems, mass media and advertising. This multi-author book will be of use to scientists of social sciences, economics, psychology and the wide range of researchers of the humanities, particularly, philosophers, culture experts and political scientists. It contains a lot of theoretical, methodological and practical developments, that will allow to forecast future changes in trust and distrust in society and eventually make the process of shaping the trust culture in civil society more manageable.
It is known that charity, as with any social institution that depends on both external and internal factors. In this article the author analyzes the relationship of charity and the level of development of such internal factors as trust. The analysis was conducted on a global level and at regional level in Russia. The resulting lack of relationship to regional level and its presence in the world say that in Russia at the moment there is no required number of relevant data, based on which one could draw a conclusion about the level of philanthropy.
How seriously does the degree of trust in basic social and political institutions for people from different countries depend on their individual characteristics? To answer this question, three types of models have been estimated using the data of the fifth wave of the World Value Survey: the first one based on the assumption about a generalized relationship for all countries, the second one taking into account heterogeneity of countries (using introduction of the country-level variables), the third type applying a preliminary subdivision of countries into five clusters. The obtained results have been used for suggestion of possible actions to increase public confidence in the basic institutions.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.