Factors of Interregional Migration in Russia Disaggregated by Age
This paper examines the factors of interregional migration in Russia for people of different ages. Basing on 2010 census data, we estimate negative binomial regression models for total migration flows and migration flows disaggregated by age with socio-economic, demographic, geographical factors of the regions of departure and arrival. The analysis showed that only two flows: migrants of economically active age and families react correctly (from an economic point of view) to the variables of the labor market, incomes, the economic situation of the regions of departure and arrival, and housing indicators. Pensioners tend to minimize the costs of living, moving to poorer regions with high unemployment, where the cost of living is cheaper, and to regions with a favorable climate, thus saving on housing maintenance and having opportunity for subsistence farming. Students and young people are rational in their relocation in a different way, they are motivated by the possibility of building up human capital and opportunities for starting a career, while other factors are insignificant for them. The study also confirmed the hypothesis that in Russia, as in other countries, migrant flows of different ages move in opposite directions.
The article analyzes the regional characteristics of migration of the elderly in Russia. Using the data, composed on the basis of the National Population Census of 2010, we allocate the share of people aged 60 and older in the structure of the inter-regional and intra-regional migration flows and describe the intensity of this type of migration. The results of the analysis demonstrate that intensity of the migration of the elderly differs across the regions. The highest migration intensity is observed in the Far East and northern territories. Retirement migration from these regions happens before people reach the legally defined retirement age for men and women in Russia. In fact, migration of the elderly from the northern regions is the resettlement of the ‘young-elderly’. Low migration intensity of the elderly is characteristic for most of the republics and autonomous okrugs. In the paper, we also define major centers of in-migration and out-migration of the elderly within the Russian Federation, as well as outline general characteristics of the migration of the elderly in Russia.
This paper explores age-specific migration flows between regions of Russia. Using age-disaggregated data of the Russian Census 2010, we cluster interregional migration flows based on prevailing age-groups of migrants, analyse diversity and similarity in the choice of age-specific migration destinations and describe general socio-economic characteristics of these flows. It is for the first time that the relationship between migration and migrants’ age and life-cycle events is analysed in the Russian context. Similar to migrants in other countries, migrants in Russia choose the place of residence depending on their age. Migration flows which differ by dominating age group of migrants quite often have opposite destinations, because motivations of migration also differ. Migration follows various stages of the life-cycle: people are born in one region, study in another region, go to work in a different region, and resettle to another place after retirement. Migration modeling turns to be complicated if the impact of age factor is ignored. Therefore, the age of migrants should be considered when analyzing, modeling and interpreting interregional migration in Russia.
This paper analyzes regional features of migration of the elderly population in Russia. Data compiled from the 2010 All-Russia Population Census have revealed the share of people aged 60 years and older in the structure of interregional and intraregional migration flows and the intensity of this type of migration. Assessment of the migration intensity of the elderly in Russia demonstrates significant regional differentiation. Compared to Russia as a whole, the Far East and northern territories are distinguished by a high level of elderly migration intensity. At the same time, the beginning of “retirement” departures from these regions usually occurs earlier than is set by the retirement age limit for men and women in Russia. And in general, migration of the elderly from northern regions involves the relocation of the “young elderly.” The overwhelming majority of republics and autonomous entities are among the regions with a low intensity of migration of the elderly. This paper also identifies the main centers of attraction and outflow of elderly migrants within the Russian Federation and general features of elderly migration in Russia.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.