Философия войны: краткий очерк истории
The article provides a brief overview of the history of understanding of war in European thought. Transformation of the perception of war as a socio-political phenomenon is traced in chronological order. Author focuses on the assessments of war from the standpoint of ethics and political theory. It is observed in the text how key questions that allow to give a moral assessment of war were raised in ancient philosophy. The duality of the attitude to war was fixed in the works of Plato and Aristotle. Assessment of war depended on the extent to which the conflict corresponds to natural justice. Later, in the works of Christian authors, the basis of this dichotomy rested on the idea of God as a source of justice. The paradigm of punitive war became the core of the Christian doctrine of just war. In modern history, the process of secularization of the philosophical perception of war had begun. Theological consideration of armed conflicts was replaced by legal one. The article considers the influence that Grotius and his followers had on the process of replacing the punitive paradigm of just war with the legalist paradigm. It is noted also that renunciation of war and search of perpetual peace appeared to be a popular genre in 18th century. Kant was given as an example on that matter. Further, the author refers to the legacy of Clausewitz in order to determine the main features of modern period views on war as a practice strictly assigned to the state. The article concludes with a comparative review of approaches to the evaluation of war by political realists and contemporary just war theorists.
In what follows I make two interrelated claims: 1. It is necessary to understand terrorism as a communicative action, not as a negative label. There are thus 5 major types of terror actions (Affective, Traditional, Value-Rational, Rational and Hyper Rational), which have little in common. The term ‘terrorism’ itself is an empty abstraction and it is impossible to ‘fight terror’. 2. Terrorism may be and often is much more morally constrained than ‘warrism’. Terroristic struggle is, at least in theory, morally superior to war. Two case studies (Russian terrorism and Chechen terrorism) are provided as empirical justification of the claims.
The international team of authors from all over the world is united in the book by the disire to work out some practical guide lines against violence. Violence reigns supreme in our political and even daily life. Violence is the major threat to mankind. Nevertheless we do not really understand the scope of the threat. The book addresses the problem of violence from all possible perspectives. The major concern of the book is the practical applicability of nonviolence. The authors claim that our world can and should be nonviolent and that is the only possible way to save the planet and ourselves.
As a whole, Augustine and the Disciplines reads well, and it is wise to read first the Vessey introduction and then read it again when one is finished with the essays. His vision of the continuity among the essays helps the reader to 're-imagine' the conference itself and engage in the various essays as a common project aimed at solving some difficult - but important - questions in Augustinian scholorship today.
The legitimacy of NATO’s war against Serbia in March 1999 has been widely debated. In the previous chapter, Carl Ceulemans concludes that justice is on the side of NATO’s military campaign. But his analysis is not the only one possible within the framework of Just War Theory. In the following, a different analysis is presented. It shows that while operating within the framework of Just War Theory one can arrive at quite different conclusions from his.
In the Social Science, as different from the history of ideas, the steady preconception of viewing Hobbes as the philosopher who considered human to be a rational and selfish being exists. Such human beings in their natural condition set the war of all against all, but only the strong power can preserve them in the condition of peace. However true Hobbesian views as to the human relationships have almost nothing in common with these trivial suggestion. The article deals with some aspects of Hobbesian anthropology and his doctrine of the virtue. It is argued that the social order is represented by Hobbes as very agile and complex in its structure. At the first glance his philosophy could seem very legible and solely constructivist, designed as the triumph of coherence and implacable logic. At depth - it is not even contradictory, but the terrain of the questions without any answers.
Hobbesian philosophy holds the attention of the researches up to now. The most discussable questions are the following ones: 1. Whether the philosophy of Hobbes is to be considered in relation to his physics and metaphysics or it is an autonomous area of contemplation? 2. Is the philosophy of Hobbes immanently intelligible, as a system of interrelated suppositions or it is to be interpreted out of the historical context of his published works? 3. Is his bellum omnium contra omnes merely an intellectual construction or this notion can be referred to the historical and universal facts of social life design?
The author analyzes Dostoevsky's ideas about confession and theodicy and shows how they were influenced by Vladimir Solov'ev and St. Augustine
Collection of articles is based on materials RUSO Conference October 26, 2013 and primarily focuses on different aspects of origin , course and consequences of the First World War. We investigate the approaching of the war , its relation in Russian and foreign historiography , problems of international relations of the era , the situation in the army and navy. The second major unit materials collection associated with the history of the Great Patriotic War. Considered moral questions of the political climate in the Soviet Union before and at the beginning of this war, the economy , the activities of individual units. Again referred to the exploits of heroes Panfilov . The collection also has special film Prutian campaign in 1711 , Russia's participation in the anti-Napoleonic wars , as well as a number of other problems of Russian history is closely connected with the history of some foreign countries . The collection is intended primarily for historians - researchers, university professors, as well as for all those interested in domestic history of modern and contemporary .
The article considers the Views of L. N. Tolstoy not only as a representative, but also as a accomplisher of the Enlightenment. A comparison of his philosophy with the ideas of Spinoza and Diderot made it possible to clarify some aspects of the transition to the unique Tolstoy’s religious and philosophical doctrine. The comparison of General and specific features of the three philosophers was subjected to a special analysis. Special attention is paid to the way of thinking, the relation to science and the specifics of the worldview by Tolstoy and Diderot. An important aspect is researched the contradiction between the way of thinking and the way of life of the three philosophers.
Tolstoy's transition from rational perception of life to its religious and existential bases is shown. Tolstoy gradually moves away from the idea of a natural man to the idea of a man, who living the commandments of Christ. Starting from the educational worldview, Tolstoy ended by creation of religious and philosophical doctrine, which were relevant for the 20th century.
This important new book offers the first full-length interpretation of the thought of Martin Heidegger with respect to irony. In a radical reading of Heidegger's major works (from Being and Time through the ‘Rector's Address' and the ‘Letter on Humanism' to ‘The Origin of the Work of Art' and the Spiegel interview), Andrew Haas does not claim that Heidegger is simply being ironic. Rather he argues that Heidegger's writings make such an interpretation possible - perhaps even necessary.
Heidegger begins Being and Time with a quote from Plato, a thinker famous for his insistence upon Socratic irony. The Irony of Heidegger takes seriously the apparently curious decision to introduce the threat of irony even as philosophy begins in earnest to raise the question of the meaning of being. Through a detailed and thorough reading of Heidegger's major texts and the fundamental questions they raise, Haas reveals that one of the most important philosophers of the 20th century can be read with as much irony as earnestness. The Irony of Heidegger attempts to show that the essence of this irony lies in uncertainty, and that the entire project of onto-heno-chrono-phenomenology, therefore needs to be called into question.
The article is concerned with the notions of technology in essays of Ernst and Friedrich Georg Jünger. The special problem of the connection between technology and freedom is discussed in the broader context of the criticism of culture and technocracy discussion in the German intellectual history of the first half of the 20th century.