От позитивизма Огюста Конта к «положительной» философии Густава Шпета: проблема эмпирической истории
The article offers a comparative consideration of the ideas of Gustav Shpet and Auguste Comte in relation to the concept of "empirical history". The positivist thought of Comte had a significant impact on the formation of social disciplines at the turn of the XIX and XX centuries, but its philosophical reflexivity and logic were questioned at the beginning of the XX century by Gustav Shpet. Russian philosopher pointed out such shortcomings of positivism as the presence of metaphysical assumptions, inability to work with historical material, following the abstract scheme of the historical process. From his point of view, positivism was a philosophical doctrine of the philosophy of history, but not a productive methodology of science. The author presents a critique by Gustav Shpet and summarizes his ideas about real history, which can serve as a methodological basis for overcoming the crisis of modern social theory.