Легитимность судебной власти в истории российского суда (на примерах эволюционных и революционных преобразований XVIII в. — нач. XX в.)
In the article the author considers the stages of modernization most significant for the national justice: during the reforms of the 18th century, the 19th century, and the October Revolution of 1917. As history shows, revolutions and evolutionary reforms are the two main forms of development of nature and society, including state and legal institutions. Important in these cases is the legitimation, which can provide previously acquired or newly created stability and social utility. The court is an important element in the political and legal systems. As the author demonstrates, the change in the latter invariably entails a change in the former, primarily because he performs law enforcement, human rights and law enforcement functions in the legal model of statehood and, accordingly, law enforcement, law enforcement and law enforcement functions in non-legal, totalitarian, for example, statehood models various historical eras. The development of a court like any other socio-political institution can take place either in an evolutionary or revolutionary way: as a general rule, the former presupposes reforming or improving the old one, while preserving the traditional traits, while the second involves breaking the old one and creating a new one radically different from the former, but at the same time not necessarily progressive. Comparing the two versions of the revolutionary in essence and the results of the transformation of the court in the domestic history, the author concludes: in the first case, the reforms of Peter I corresponded to the task of its modernization and were sufficiently conditioned by the tendencies of not only political, but also economic, social and cultural development of Russia, although and a few ahead of them. In the second example of the post-October revolutionary breakdown of the progressive, in fact, court, the new court did not correspond to the features and qualities of the proper organization of justice, but was conditioned and substantiated by the interests of the new ruling class and the Soviet socialist state, whose task is precisely their expression and protection.