Концепция «продовольственных режимов» как модель объяснения стратегий аграрного развития (на примере России и Бразилии)
The ‘food regime’ approach was introduced as a historical method of “incorporated
comparison” (P. McMichael). This comparison of the role of agriculture in the world-system made some
scholars overemphasize an excessively unitary and coherent global food regime. The authors recognize
this approach as a historical-comparative analytical tool to understand global trends, but argue that
the Russian and Brazilian agrarian development question some ideas of the food regime approach.
The contemporary positions of two countries in the global markets also prove the divergences in their
positioning in the food regime genealogy. The paper focuses on the production and export of soy and wheat
which do not represent the entire agrarian economy of Brazil and Russia but allow to compare two
countries’ strategies of the international trade and in domestic markets. First, the authors briefly discuss
the historical routes Russia and Brazil have taken in the agricultural development and global food markets;
then they analyze the radical changes that followed the Russian perestroika and the Brazilian re-democratization
in the late 1980s and led to the consolidation of neoliberal policies in the 1990s. After that the paper
describes the turn of both countries to the ‘neo-developmental state’ that supported the export-oriented
policies for the agribusiness but combined them with domestic food security and sovereignty policies.
Finally, the authors conclude that despite differing trajectories both Russia and Brazil cannot be considered
parts of the neoliberal food regime due to the fact that the contemporary period should be rather defined
as a paradigmatic crisis and a co-existence of two or more food regimes.