Красноречие Макрокосма и грамматика Венеры
This article deals with the first Russian translation of major prosimetric opera and prosaic exegetical texts originated from the so-called “school of Chartres”. A special attention is paid to the place of this edition in Russian and Western historiography of the 12th century philosophy and Medieval Latin exegesis. It has been shown that the way of selecting the texts for the translation and the method of commenting them carried out by the editors of the anthology make it possible to withdraw the Chartres school from the “no man’s land” between the history of ideas and traditional history of philosophy, restoring its appropriate status in the history of the European intellectual culture – at the intersection of theology, Platonic natural philosophy and poetry.
The article considers some protreptic motifs of the First Alcibiades in St. Basil’s homily On the Words ‘Give Heed to Thyself’. Dealing with a verse from Deuteronomy (15:9: Πρόσεχε σεαυτῷ etc.). St. Basil evidently regards it as a biblical counterpart of the Delphic maxim γνῶθι σαυτόν, using the sacred text to impel his audience to virtue and self-knowledge. In the second part of this article we highlight some parallels between St. Basil’s text, Porphyry’s writing Περὶ τοῦ γνῶθι σαυτόν, the Preparation for the Gospel XI 27 of Eusebius of Caesarea and the Address to Origen traditionally ascribed to Gregory Thaumaturgus. We finally point to similar interpretations of Πρόσεχε σεαυτῷ in Philo’s treaty On the migration of Abraham and in Clement of Alexandria’s Stromata. In conclusion, we argue that both in choice and in elaboration of his subject St. Basil follows the platonic tradition; in compliance with this tradition St. Basil associates the protreptic motifs of the First Alcibiades with the motifs of immortality and the knowledge of God. Just like for Porphyry and (as far as we can judge) for Origen, self-knowledge is not an end in itself for him; impelling his audience to ‘give heed’ he urges them to ascend towards the knowledge of God, which is the true philosophy for him. The genre of the philosophical protreptic, whose traits we find in the homily, turns out to be opportune precisely because for St. Basil, along with the earlier Christian writers, it is Christianity which is the only real philosophy.
The article concerns the problems of “categorical interpretation” of matrimonial images of the Old Testament by Philo of Alexandria. The author proposes that Philo perceived female images as objectivated aspects of corresponding types of mind (represented by male images), draws parallels between this concept and the dialectic of emanation in Platonism, and proposes some analogies with Gnostic teaching about syzygies.
In my article (talk), based on dialogue ‘Parmenides’, I argue that Plato is not a Platonist, because he does not postulate an independent existence of the "World of Forms". However, he argues that the forms are necessary for our cognition of things. Therefore, we should not reject the existence of Plato’s Forms, but to clarify their epistemic and ontological status. From epistemic point of view, Platonic theory of knowledge is similar to Kantian theory of a priori (transcendentalism). In ontological sense Plato’s Forms should be understood as not special intelligible things (objects), but as the properties [of things] and Plato postulated ‘partaking’ things to some Forms: every thing exist as a particular set of properties (attributes, qualities) and a totality of them (pre)determines this thing (thereby, the properties are ‘primary’ and the things are ‘secondary’). Thus, Plato’s ontology in contrast to the substantial ‘ontology of things’ (Democritus, Aristotle) can be considered as the alternative predicative ‘ontology of properties’.
This article examines the political implications of the Biblical exegesis in John Wycliffe and his opponent, John Cunningham.
Le présent article a pour but de mettre en lumière, à la base d’un manuscrit exégètique anonyme de la première moitié du XIIIe siècle, un épisode remarquable de l’histoire du «Maïmonide latin» – celui de la reception occidentale de l’exégèse maïmonidienne. Le destin de l’exégèse de Maïmonide dans l’Occident chrétien, quoique étudié ces derniers temps d’une manière très intense, offre encore un nombre de points obscurs et inexplorés. Nous nous attachons à combler cette lacune.
At the end of the homily IX In Hexaemeron St. Basil the Great promises to continue his Genesis exegesis with an account of man’s creation (Hex. 9. 6. 90−91: ἐν τίνι μὲν οὖν ἔχει τὸ κατ' εἰκόνα Θεοῦ ὁ ἄνθρωπος, καὶ πῶς μεταλαμβάνει τοῦ καθ' ὁμοίωσιν). However, he never got to it (the two homilies De hominis opificio were probably written by another person). Nevertheless, a close analysis of the homily In illud: attende tibi ipsi shows that in his account of man’s creation Basil’s is very much endebted to the Alexandrian tradition which adjusted Plato’s Timaeus to the interpretation of the biblical text. A special attention will be paid to the term ζῷον θεόπλαστον.