ЖЕНСКИЕ КОММУНИКАТИВНЫЕ ПРАКТИКИ И ТРАДИЦИОННЫЙ УКЛАД ЖИЗНИ В ПРОИЗВЕДЕНИЯХ Г. ЯХИНОЙ «ЗУЛЕЙХА ОТКРЫВАЕТ ГЛАЗА» И ЛУ СИНЯ «МОЛЕНИЕ О СЧАСТЬЕ»
The article is dedicated to the studies of communicative practices characterizing the system of traditional lifestyles of women in China and Russia. On the basis of comparative analyses of the novel Zuleikha Opens Her Eyes by Guzel Yakhina and a story The New Year Sacrifice by Lu Xun the basic types and characteristics of communication of women with social surroundings, family and nature are defined. These include: social and sacral communicative practices, based on social and ethno cultural values and ethno psychological attitudes. The dual character of ethno-cultural tradition forming women’s lifestyle is determined, constructive and destructive aspects of women’s communicative practices are studied. Women’s characters are studied as examples of the transformation of the traditional lifestyle within the context of conflicting relations between old traditional norms and new socio-cultural realities, various types of social bans and penalties (up to sanctioned abuse). The books by Guzel Yakhina and by Lu Xun reveal parallel trends in the artistic representation of basic characteristics of cultural traditions regulating women’s activities in family and society as well as similar ethical and psychological features of both main characters. The article studies two levels of realization of women’s communicative practices: “husband – wife”, and “son – mother”. It is stressed that the researched books both represent women’s communicative practices not only as verbal activity, but as a description of various types on non-verbal communication (touching, gestures, positions), which is more important for the image of a mother. The realization of women’s communicative scenarios, such as “standard scenario”, “gaining meaning of life scenario” and “scenario of losing one’s family” are examined.
Apart from the public sphere and the norms set by society, the private sphere plays an important role in the lives of the disabled, including the personal experience of disability at a micro level: in their families, everyday routines and romantic relationships. In this chapter, issues of family structure are considered using a narrative analysis of interviews with women who use wheelchairs. Various cultural, social, economic and political determinants effect the formation of certain types of family structure and attitudes towards family life. At the same time, they interrelate with biographical factors that reinforce or weaken the limits of freedom and private life. Using narrative analysis, I demonstrate what role family plays in constructing the identity of a person with a disability, and how family members act as coauthors of individual biographies. This can be seen in those dilemmas of family life associated with the feelings, sexuality and emotional stability at the micro-level of the life experience and identification of women with disabilities.
Motherhood got into focus of social researchers in 1960—1970s. Since that time it is a rich and rapidly developing debate. This article provides an overview of contemporary Western sociological discussion about motherhood. The author identifies three key vectors of research of motherhood: a public/private motherhood, “bad”/“good” motherhood, oppression/possibilities of motherhood. In the first discussion researchers are focused on the production of motherhood in public discourses and institutions, they consider as well how public ideals of motherhood affect women’s experience and identification. The significant part of the discussion consists of the research devoted to the study of combining work and motherhood by women. The second area of research examines how women are labeled as good or bad mothers, how women are proving for themselves the correctness of their own motherhood, and how they redefine the stigmatizing label of “bad” mother at the level of narration and practices. And the last area discussion, deeply rooted in feminism, is built around the analysis of cultural oppression to motherhood and of the subjective and objective resources of motherhood in a woman’s life. The author understands the genre limitations of the review and does not claim to cover the whole rich and contradictory discussion. She offers the reader her own view of the contemporary debate about motherhood, highlighting important, from her point of view, conceptions, research categories, and interpretations.
This article examines the industrial wastes and environmental effects of Soviet technological development through the history of the Karelian Isthmus, a border territory that had previously been Finnish. Focusing primarily on the history of two large enterprises – the Svetogorskii (former Enso) and Sovetskii (former Johannes) pulp and paper making plants, the authors illustrate the polluting nature of the Soviet economy in the 1940s-1980s. We contend that from the very beginning, important as they were for the USSR, the enterprises of the Isthmus were built into a system of shortages of techniques and materials that contributed to the hectic fulfillment of the plan. Producing pulp and pulp-based products remained a priority during the whole Soviet period. On the level of industrial enterprises, the Soviet system revealed itself as incapable of solving the problem of pollution and wasting. After waste treatment facilities developed by Soviet engineers in the 1960s turned out to be inadequate for dealing with increasing pollution, the Soviet authorities called on Finnish companies to carry out substantial modernization of a few enterprises on the Isthmus. This helped the modernized plants remain functioning in the age of economic crisis at the end of the Soviet epoch. Old problems, however, such as shortages and lack of expertise, remained pivotal, while new sources of pollution, such as carbon emissions, appeared. As a result, the level of contamination was still high and led to negative environmental impacts.
Systems Thinking in Museums explores systems thinking and the practical implication of it using real-life museum examples to illuminate various entry points and stages of implementation and their challenges and opportunities. Its premise is that museums can be better off when they operate as open, dynamic, and learning systems as a whole as opposed to closed, stagnant, and status quo systems that are compartmentalized and hierarchical. This book also suggests ways to incorporate systems thinking based on reflective questions and steps with hopes to encourage museum professionals to employ systems thinking in their own museum. Few books explore theory in practice in meaningful and applicable ways; this book offers to unravel complex theories as applied in everyday practice through examples from national and international museums.
This paper is devoted to the transformation of viewers’ perception in the USSR during the 1980s and 1990s. Through collecting and analyzing letters by spectators discovered in the archives and published in the revue Sovetskiy Ekran, this research is aimed to consider the norms and categories of film interpretation, as well as to understand of changes in historical reception during these times. This paper pays close attention to the complicated processes of popular cinema legitimation in the Soviet Union during the transformation of the whole Soviet film industry. Thus, the shift to the market system in the Soviet film industry revealed that filmmakers were not ready to work under the circumstances of market-driven film economy, oriented to the audience. Due to the censorship annulment and the leveling of erotic taboo in Soviet cinema, the naked body became almost the main way of audience attraction. However, the aesthetic tradition of nudity had not yet developed in Soviet cinema, as well as a spectator had not to experience in watching, evaluating and discussing erotic episodes in the cinema. As a result, a viewer used ‘Soviet’ optics of interpretation, relying on the educational discourse of Art and mimetic function of cinema.