This article examines subjects and decorative sources of orientalism inRussian porcelain ofthe 18th and 19th centuries. It seems important to single out stages ofthe incremental development of orientalist motifs in Russian porcelain and describe their evolution. Additionally, the authors aim to clarify why orientalist motifs were chosen by porcelain collectors and buyers and what role they played in arts and crafts in Russian Empire at different times. The article presents a consistent analysis ofthe evolution of orientalist motifs in 18th–19th centuries Russian porcelain. This study employs methods of formal and stylistic analysis. The use of these methods allows the authors to study the stylistic origins of orientalist motifs answering the question regarding the framework of its stylistic tradition and why a fashion emerged for the motifs described in this research. Furthermore, the researchers use the historical-genetic method trying to trace the emergence and development of the phenomenon of orientalist motifs on the basis of literature, historical sources, and porcelain objects. By applying methods of historical analysis and cultural analysis, this paper investigates and highlights the historical background of the emergence and development of orientalist motifs in Russian porcelain. Additionally, these methods are appropriate to understand how the taste preferences of customers of porcelain in the Russian Empire between the second half ofthe 18th and the 19th centuries influenced the stylistic formation of orientalist motifs.
In this article, the development of the English novel is viewed through the prism of Henri Bergson’s ideas on memory, the past and the present. A turn to the French philosopher’s system is explained by the necessity to design a historical and poetological model for the genre of memory novel, which, in the author’s opinion, is very typical of 20th-century literature in general and of English literature in particular. As the influence of Bergson on the British literature of the 1900s–1920s is well-studied, the author focuses on the subsequent period. The article analyses eight novels and a twelve-volume cycle of novels written between the 1930s and 1990s. The scope of the research is also limited to first-person novels which the author considers to be more representative for the genre. He aims to prove that in its evolution, the English first-person memory novel comes closer to Bergson’s ideas of memory being the synthesis of the past and the present and of progressive movement of memory directed from the past to the present — not only the other way round. Such understanding of memory and the temporal planes explains the composition of the novels, the relations between the narrator, character and narratee, the problems, ideas and style of the authors under investigation. It is established that it is very characteristic of the memory novels of the 1930s, 1940s, and 1950s (George Orwell, Evelyn Waugh, Anthony Powell) to compositionally separate the past and the present, giving ontological priority to one of the time planes (but not to both) and also to strictly distinguish between the narrating and the narrated selves, giving the leading role to the former. In the novels of the second half (William Golding, Iris Murdoch) and especially of the end of the century (Kazuo Ishiguro, Graham Swift, Hilary Mantel), the boundaries between the past, present, and future in terms of plot and composition become more transparent; the positions of the narrator, character, and narratee are more relativised; the system of narrative and grammatical tenses is more heterogeneous.
Sixteenth-century French kings paid much attention to decorating cities and especially Paris. Henry II (1546–1559) did the most for the capital, but large-scale urban projects that reflect the image of an ideal city have not survived since his time. The image of an ideal city in the era of Henry II can be restored to some extent by analysing Dicaearchiae Henrici Regis Christianissimi Progymnasmata (1556), a work of the avocat de Parlement de Paris Raoul Spifamе. It was a collection of rhetorical exercises in the field of jurisprudence written in the form of royal arrêts and designed to reform all matters in the kingdom. This book has a controversial reputation. Some mistakenly believed that these were authentic laws of the king. Others considered it a sharp satire and even delirium of a madman. Still others were astonished at Spifame’s clairvoyance, noting that many of his imaginary projects were subsequently implemented. A considerable part of the arrêts is devoted to the problems of the city, i.e. its safety, cleanliness, maintaining the piety of citizens, helping the poor, orphans, and the diseased, reorganising the urban space. Spifamе planned a large-scale construction of a new large bridge across the Seine, a consolidation of deserted islands into one and its development, the creation of new ports, markets, and embankments. A significant part of these projects was implemented in the future. This “clairvoyance” of the author was due to his ties with secrétaires d’État preparing for large-scale transformations of the mid-sixteenth century which were never realised due to the unexpected death of the king and the outbreak of the Religious Wars.
The classical concept of jihad, which formed in the 9th–10th centuries, evolved under the influence of circumstances and was developed by the great Muslim scholars of the Mamluk era (1250–1517). The present paper is based on the works Ibn al-Nahhas (d. 1411), and focuses on the understanding of the theory and the practice of jihad in the Circassian Sultanate (1382–1517). The idea of jihad became a key element of the ideology of Mamluk sultans and was aimed at strengthening the legitimacy of their power. In the Circassian period, jihad as a teaching retained its connection with the most important Islamic values embodied in the concepts of «justice» (al-ʿadl) and «truth» (al-ḥaqq). Anyone who knew how to use the jihad doctrine as a means received in his hands a powerful tool for manipulating the consciousness of believers in his own political interests, regardless of what moral principles he was guided by.
The authors explore the issue of understanding jihad as the responsibility of the community (farḍ al-kifāya) and/or personal responsibility (farḍ al-ʿayn) and the role of jihad ideology Ottoman-Mamluk confrontation in the 15th–16th centuries.
A fertile ground for this paper was given by studies of M. Bonner and D. Cook, who supplemented a balanced approach to the interpretation of jihad in historical perspective with a critical consideration of its religious and political meanings. The authors emphasize the importance of difference between the understanding of jihad as a collective and individual obligation using the concept of minimalism and maximalism developed by Y. Waghid.
The conclusions of the study are valid not only for the Middle Ages, but are directly related to modernity. The authors emphasize this point, drawing parallels between the theory and the practice of jihad in the Mamluk period with the events in modern Afghanistan, Syria, Libya, Yemen and Saudi Arabia.
The article is devoted to Dafydd ap Gruffydd, the last native prince of Wales. Dafydd ap Gruffydd is considered to be the one who started the last war (1282-1283) ended with English conquest of Wales. Dafydd’s defeat and death signified the loss of independence of Wales. It is commonly accepted that Dafydd was the first man of noble rank to be hanged, drawn and quartered in England for a high treason. His trial was held before parliament. Dafydd ap Gruffydd has traditionally been described as an «evil genius» of Llywelyn the Last, a traitor who left his brother and people. This article is an attempt to analyze some causes of Dafydd’s acts from the political and legal points of view. Dafydd’s disagreement with Llywelyn’s policy aimed at reforming of traditional authority structures as well as his intentions to move into the marcher lordships must be taken into account. In addition, Dafydd’s role in the last war did not seem as unquestionable, since it was possible that Llywelyn had approved his attack. The research has been made with reference to a wide range of sources, including Welsh and English chronicles, official acts and letters of Welsh and English rulers.
The article is dedicated to the studies of communicative practices characterizing the system of traditional lifestyles of women in China and Russia. On the basis of comparative analyses of the novel Zuleikha Opens Her Eyes by Guzel Yakhina and a story The New Year Sacrifice by Lu Xun the basic types and characteristics of communication of women with social surroundings, family and nature are defined. These include: social and sacral communicative practices, based on social and ethno cultural values and ethno psychological attitudes. The dual character of ethno-cultural tradition forming women’s lifestyle is determined, constructive and destructive aspects of women’s communicative practices are studied. Women’s characters are studied as examples of the transformation of the traditional lifestyle within the context of conflicting relations between old traditional norms and new socio-cultural realities, various types of social bans and penalties (up to sanctioned abuse). The books by Guzel Yakhina and by Lu Xun reveal parallel trends in the artistic representation of basic characteristics of cultural traditions regulating women’s activities in family and society as well as similar ethical and psychological features of both main characters. The article studies two levels of realization of women’s communicative practices: “husband – wife”, and “son – mother”. It is stressed that the researched books both represent women’s communicative practices not only as verbal activity, but as a description of various types on non-verbal communication (touching, gestures, positions), which is more important for the image of a mother. The realization of women’s communicative scenarios, such as “standard scenario”, “gaining meaning of life scenario” and “scenario of losing one’s family” are examined.
The article considers the specifics of audiovisual historical sources in popular musical studies and describes the main steps of the source analysis, focusing mostly on American and British popular music of the 20th century. The understanding of the specifics of audiovisual sources and popular music developed in the fields of audiovisual studies and popular music studies set the general framework for a source study of audiovisual sources in popular musical culture. Popular music is a complex social institute: lyrics, musical form, production and music recording are equal components of a popular music. The analysis of popular music should take into account all these elements. The researchers do not study exclusively written sources (scores and transcriptions which are not often used in popular music industry). It has significantly expanded the empirical base: from audio sources and live recordings to musical artifacts (clothes of musicians, musical instruments, and medium) and music clubs or record-studios. Accordingly, the specific ‘language’ of audiovisual sources is due to the peculiarities of production, presentation and distribution of musical products in the cultural industry. As an example, the author considers the specifics of the music industry and culture in the United States and Great Britain in the 20th century, focusing on sound recordings, music media and music distribution in these countries. Finally, the article highlights several stages in the source study of popular musical: collecting general information on a source (its history; structure; elements of the author’s style; authorship; the features of a source record; socio-cultural context of its creation; reception; forms of distribution); genre characteristics of a source; ‘content’ of a source (lyrics analysis, musical form); presentation (artistic design, style of live performance, entourage); audience (audience composition, reception).
Between 1933 and 1941, critic Fyodor Markovich Levin (1901–1972) was at the center of literary and political events related to the establishment and work of the Sovetsky Pisatel [A Soviet Writer] publishing house (First Director and Editor-in-chief), as well as the Literaturnyi Kritik (Deputy editor) and Literaturnoye Obozreniye (Editor-in-chief) journals. These journals were an extraordinary phenomenon, and not only because of the high artistic quality of the publications. They were created by a team of associates who considered the critic’s own style, voice, and opinion the main criteria of professionalism and necessary components of creativity. The reader was not imposed any party directives on, but got involved in the discussion and creative disputes. His work in the publishing house and the journals determined the fate of F. M. Levin. That period oftime saw theformation ofhis civil and creative position as apriority ofcreative freedom over the rigorous ideological attitudes. Some previously unknown archival materials and Levin’s personal documents from the CPSU’s archive from the period of the ‘campaign against cosmopolitanism and anti-patriotism’ reconstruct this stage of Levin’s life and shed new light on the establishment and work of the Sovetsky Pisatelpublishing house, and the Literaturnyi Kritik and Literaturnoye Obozreniye journals along with new details of the relationship between the critic, the publishing house and the journals and Anna Akhmatova and Andrey Platonov
The article is devoted to nine Indian miniatures from the collection of the State Museum of Oriental Art (Moscow). The aim of this study is to provide an academic description of these items, and to clarify their attributions. All the works in question have been thoroughly studied: the author conducted iconographic, textological and stylistic analysis of objects. There was also made a search of compositional and stylistic analogues among the miniature paintings (mainly from foreign collections), published in catalogs, monographs, articles, and the Internet (on the websites of museums and libraries); identified items were carefully analyzed. On the basis of the above mentioned study nine sheets in collection have been identified as miniatures of ragamala series; in some cases it was also possible to clarify the time of their creation.
The research presented in the article is carried out in the framework of narratology which has become extremely popular outside Literary Criticism, Linguistics and even philological disciplines as such. From narratological aspect the author addresses the issues of English late Modernism of the 1940s which has not yet received proper theoretisation. Modernism at this stage responds to the demands of the Realist age and at the same time apprehends the beginning of Postmodernist era.
The article focuses on the problem of transposition between unmediated objective (historical) and mediated subjective (narrated) realities within the fictitious world of the novel as well as between the text and the reality of the biographical author and reader. The basis for this transgression is narration as process which consequently binds a character with a character, a character with a narrator and the latter with the biographical author and reader. In the novel by Henry Green (whose oeuvre is virtually unknown in Russia) narration takes the form of reminiscences. The characters’ attempts to connect the present with the past reflect the implied reader’s perception of fictitious text and reality.
The paper considers the impact of cinema on the satirical novel «The Apes of God» (1930) by English modernist painter and writer Wyndham Lewis as contextualized by its author’s predominantly negative reception of cinema in his fiction and criticism. Cinema is represented in the novel as an anti-intellectual and anti-aesthetic mass-produced cultural product, whose model serves passively mechanical characters satirized by the author as a model for perceiving and interpreting their lives. Conceived as such, cinema stands in stark contrast with the text of the novel. Detailed metaphorical descriptions of the least significant movements of objects and characters seen from a short distance act as a deliberate literary antithesis to such popular cinema’s devices as slow motion and close-up. Thus, Lewis’s novel is a consistent articulation of its author’s opposition to cinema both on the level of content and of form. Overall, «The Apes of God» stands one of the most representative literary examples of the aversion towards cinema shared by many of the masters of English «high modernism».
This paper considers the everyday life of children whose parents had been politically repressed. Mostly, the authors focus on materials from Perm region, relying on the methods and approaches of everyday history. The analysis is based on legislative regulations, archival documents, such as NKVD files, and memoirs, based on the oral accounts of witnesses. In this category, the authors focus on the ones that are both typical and emotional. The article considers the living conditions of the social group in question. The difficulties they faced were common for all Soviet people, however, their social status could exacerbate them. The authors refute the idea that during the postwar years, all children equally regarded the period as sombre, as much depended not only on the social status of the children in the local community but also on the political situation in the country. The authors single out obstacles the children whose parents had been repressed were facing, especially in the educational sphere. They describe the atmosphere of suspicion they lived in. Additionally, the authors pay attention to the children’s mental state, as their parents were deprived of their rights, and demonstrate that they experienced a constant lack of comfort, because society was prejudiced against them as “enemies of the people”.
1860s The author makes an attempt at analysing the legal status of the Ili Province, the region of the Qing Empire which had been an independent Junghar Khanate conquered by the Manchu dynasty at the turn of the 1760s. Referring to different sources and research works, the author characterises the legal status of the Ili Province from its foundation in the early 1760s to the Muslim rebellion of the early 1860s which resulted in the region’s separation from the Qing Empire. The author analyses the administrative system and the local government, the status f specific groups of population, the policy of Qing regional authorities as regarded foreigners (subjects of Central Asian khanates and the Russian Empire), and its regulations in the field of trade and taxation. The author refers to a wide range of notes of Russian diplomats and merchants who visited the Ili Province between 1770 and the 1860s which makes the work innovative. The analysis of these materials allows the author to describe the formally fixed legal status of the region, its population and foreigners but also the specific features of putting legal regulations into practice, and problems which the Manchu authorities faced in the Ili Province connected with the population and subjects of the neighbouring states. The author concludes that the Ili Province in 1760–1860s had a “transitional character” which caused a specific legal status both Manchu subjects and foreigners had, and which was different from their status in other Chinese regions. Later, this specific status was fixed legally, specifically in the Russian-Chinese treaties on the rights of Russian subjects in the Ili Province.
This article explores the ways and means of expressing satisfaction in the Russian language in order to show how the analysed emotional concept varies in everyday cognitive and volitional states of consciousness. According to the Russian National Corpus, satisfaction may be moral, mental, physical, sexual, narcissistic, sadistic or masochistic by nature; profound, deep, full or light by intensity; supreme or perfect by the moral evaluation; pleasant, pleasurable, bitter or painful regarding the physical sensations; happy, blissful, sad or humiliating regarding the emotional sensations; artistic, aesthetic, communist or Christian regarding the field of application; male, female, mutual or reciprocal regarding the subject participating. Satisfaction is also defined, in many different contexts, in relation to need, work, pleasure, delight, happiness, complacency, passion, curiosity, joy, etc. Such correlations may be explained by many human needs as well as many situations, causes or means of being satisfied. In this regard, the concept of satisfaction is diffuse like many other emotional concepts.