Пенсионные реформы в посткоммунистических странах: механизмы распространения новой пенсионной ортодоксии
During 1998–2008 radical pension reforms were implemented in 14 post-communist countries. The purpose of the reforms was to shift the responsibility for pension savings from government to individuals. Essentially the same model was implemented in the countries with different social and economic conditions wither a short period of time. The implementation of the model in the region is divided into 3 stages. During the first stage (1998–1999) pension reforms were implemented in Hungary, Kazakhstan and Poland; (2000–2004) – in Bulgaria, Kosovo, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Croatia and Estonia; later (2005–2008) – in Macedonia, Romania, Slovakia and Uzbekistan. The article considers the mechanisms of diffusion of the new pension orthodoxy discourse which still defines the scope of debates on the pension system design, despite all the drawbacks of the model revealed after its implementation.