The Metropolitan Bay: Spatial Imaginary of Imperial St. Petersburg and Maritime Heritage of the Gulf of Finland
The paper aims to discuss the multifaceted links between the marine environment of the Gulf of Finland and the representations of the large complex of cultural heritage related to the city of St. Petersburg. The paper is based on a spatial imaginary of Greater St. Petersburg as the cultural and technological unity of the city and adjacent waterscapes in the times of the Russian Empire. This concept is instrumental to see the historical links between the parts of the heritage complex that has by now disintegrated and has been separated by state borders.
New Holland Island is a remarkable quarter in St. Petersburg not only for its central location and historical roots (it was created in 1720), but also for the fact that it has recently been given a new life in urban contexts. The story of New Holland is a story of transformation from ship-building constructions to perfect space for in-door and open-air cultural activities – with lawns and sun beds, leisure areas for adults and children, and residential areas for artists. One of the main features of the project is private ownership meaning that regeneration development strategy is formed by an investor.
Problems of social order, improvement of territories and social organization have been always acute all over the world. Scholars have provided enough evidence to talk about signi cant correlation between cues of social disorder and deviance and crime contextualized within certain historical and spatial environments. In this paper we will focus on the transformations of social (dis)order in connection with crime and landscape over time using St. Petersburg as a case-study.
Using empirical data from police reports and various characteristics of municipal ter- ritorial units of St. Petersburg we would like to verify the main hypothesis of the theory of social disorganization theory, that is, that the environment, in which the individual lives, has a signi cant impact on their behavior contextualized within normative models of so- cial order. The paper analyses the spatial distribution of crime by GIS and environmental determinants of deviations in various areas by OLS.
The paper consists of two parts. The rst part deals with historical landscapes of crime and social (dis)order in St. Petersburg (1703-1990) to highlight historically inherent models of spatial dynamics of crime characteristic of St. Petersburg as a “regular” city and a capital of the empire descended into a provincial town after 1924. The second part of the paper explains how these historical models (dis)continued in the 1990s and 2000s due to changing environments and advances in urban planning.
This article focuses on the governing system of the mitigation of eutrophication in the Baltic Sea. Policies and measures of the Baltic Sea coastal countries, the macro--regional (HELCOM) level, and the level of the European Union are described and governance challenges explicated. We found that the main challenges at different governance levels include: differences between coastal countries in terms of environmental conditions including environmental awareness, overlaps of policies between different levels, the lack of adequate spatial and temporal specification of policies, and the lack of policy integration. To help to meet these challenges, we suggest closer involvement of stakeholders and the public, the improvement of the interplay of institutions, and the introduction of a “primus motor” for the governance of the mitigation of eutrophication in the Baltic Sea.
The article discusses the post-socialist developments of urban public space in St. Petersburg, Russia. The city with a historic center protected by the UNESCO World Heritage status in combination with the Soviet legacy of lack of public participation is facing the problem of public space development. There are two controversial concepts of urban space represented in the public discourse that are analyzed in the article: the concept of a ‘museum city’ and the ‘city for people’. The historic context of transformation (the Soviet period of the strict divide of public and private, and the post- socialist era of individualization and the decay of the public) is used to explain the current debate and difficulties of building an inclusive and tolerant model of public space in St. Petersburg.