Friedrich Shelling and Alexei Losev. An Attempt to Define the Issues
This article outlines the main threads in the reception of Friedrich Schelling’s ideas by Alexei F. Losev as reflected in his philosophical works. The author singles out three main sets of issues where Schelling’s influence on Losev manifests itself especially vividly: the dialectical interpretation of primordial essence, the conditions for the possibility of language, and the theory of the symbol and philosophy of mythology. The author shows that within Losev’s reception of Schelling’s philosophy, there could be observed a tightly woven solidarity with Schelling’s position, an instrumental appropriation of individual Schellingian concepts, productive misunderstanding, and precise hermeneutic penetration into the semantic interrelations of various semantic clusters within Schelling’s extensive corpus of texts.
The author refl ects upon the book The Sources of cultural-historical psychology: philosophical-humanitarian context by V. Zinchenko, B. Pruzhinin, T. Schedrina. Moscow, 2010.
This paper is devoted to the description and analysis of C. A. Eschenmayer’s philosophy of faith and of his discussion with F. W. J. Schelling. The author exposes the main ideas of Eschenmayer’s important work «Philosophy In Its Transition To The Non-Philosophy» (1803) in which he criticizes Schelling’s philosophy of the absolute identity pointing out the vagueness of the origin of multitude from the all-unity. At the material of Schelling’s answer («Philosophy and Religion», 1804) the author shows how Schelling begins to change his theoretical point of view. The world now is falling away from God. The paper deals also with their discussion of 1810-1812 around Schelling’s philosophy of liberty. Here Eschenmayer’s theology becomes completely apophatic. Owing to his incomprehension of the Schelling’s thought of those times and to his ﬁ deism, his contradictions with Schelling become irreconciliable. But the both philosophers maintain friendly relations, it isn’t a case of Jacobi-Schelling controversy. Conclusions that may be drawn from the paper are following: (1) the philosophy of Eschenmayer is a particular case of the philosophy of feeling and faith which has a concrete historical nature. (2) The late «positive» Schelling’s philosophy can be considered as a successful «third way» between the unsteady rationalism and the theoretical deadlock of ﬁ deism.
The paper is an attempt to demonstrate that theatrical metaphor plays a paradigmatic role in the philosophy of Schelling, from the very beginning up to the latest versions of his metaphysics. The image of theatrical play serves, in Schelling, as the main pattern for the conceptualization of every process in which freedom and necessity are mediated through each other – of thinking as such, of the World history as a whole, of the very genesis of the world, and of the history of the human consciousness.
The article analyzes poetological motifs and images that compile an independent metapoetic plot in Goethe’s “West-Eastern Divan”. From the point of view of the author of this article, the unity of the book is determined by means of the subject motif of the "oral", "stated" word. This Word becomes the cornerstone of both the natural "living» form (Gestalt) and the poetic form. Thus on the border of different cultures Goethe creates his art conception which eliminates the distinction between an eastern poetic word constructed on hints and allusions escaping its exact definition and western plastic form of a symbol.
The article considers the Views of L. N. Tolstoy not only as a representative, but also as a accomplisher of the Enlightenment. A comparison of his philosophy with the ideas of Spinoza and Diderot made it possible to clarify some aspects of the transition to the unique Tolstoy’s religious and philosophical doctrine. The comparison of General and specific features of the three philosophers was subjected to a special analysis. Special attention is paid to the way of thinking, the relation to science and the specifics of the worldview by Tolstoy and Diderot. An important aspect is researched the contradiction between the way of thinking and the way of life of the three philosophers.
Tolstoy's transition from rational perception of life to its religious and existential bases is shown. Tolstoy gradually moves away from the idea of a natural man to the idea of a man, who living the commandments of Christ. Starting from the educational worldview, Tolstoy ended by creation of religious and philosophical doctrine, which were relevant for the 20th century.
This important new book offers the first full-length interpretation of the thought of Martin Heidegger with respect to irony. In a radical reading of Heidegger's major works (from Being and Time through the ‘Rector's Address' and the ‘Letter on Humanism' to ‘The Origin of the Work of Art' and the Spiegel interview), Andrew Haas does not claim that Heidegger is simply being ironic. Rather he argues that Heidegger's writings make such an interpretation possible - perhaps even necessary.
Heidegger begins Being and Time with a quote from Plato, a thinker famous for his insistence upon Socratic irony. The Irony of Heidegger takes seriously the apparently curious decision to introduce the threat of irony even as philosophy begins in earnest to raise the question of the meaning of being. Through a detailed and thorough reading of Heidegger's major texts and the fundamental questions they raise, Haas reveals that one of the most important philosophers of the 20th century can be read with as much irony as earnestness. The Irony of Heidegger attempts to show that the essence of this irony lies in uncertainty, and that the entire project of onto-heno-chrono-phenomenology, therefore needs to be called into question.
The article is concerned with the notions of technology in essays of Ernst and Friedrich Georg Jünger. The special problem of the connection between technology and freedom is discussed in the broader context of the criticism of culture and technocracy discussion in the German intellectual history of the first half of the 20th century.