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## Анализ нелинейного спектра интенсивного морского волнения с целью прогноза экстремальных волн

We propose a method for the analysis of groups of unidirectional waves on the surface of deep water, which is based on spectral data of the scattering problem in the approximation of a nonlinear Schrodinger equation. The main attention is paid to the robustness and accuracy of the numerically obtained spectral data. Various methods of choosing the wave number of the carrier wave, which rely on the analysis of the local Fourier transform and the zero-crossing wave analysis, are considered. The most robust wave numbers have been chosen on the basis of two model

examples. A method for improving the accuracy of the soliton amplitude prediction, which uses the “feedback” in solving the associated scattering problem, is proposed. In the wave steepness range from 0.15 to 0.30, the accuracy of determining the amplitude of the soliton group by this technique lies in a range of 10%.

Perspective methods of information transfer in optical communication channels based on the latest achievements of quantum physics are considered. In the near future these methods can solve both the problem of creating an optical channel conducting with physically unlimited bandwidth, and the problem of secretly transferring information in a fiber-optic information channel. The results of the latest experiments related to the quantum properties of photons are described. The use of solitons as carriers of an information signal is considered. The technologies of using the " temporal cloak " and noise of optical amplifiers for data transmission in fiber-optic communication lines are presented.

We address a specific but possible situation in natural water bodies when the three-layer stratification has a symmetric nature, with equal depths of the uppermost and the lowermost layers. In such case, the coefficients at the leading nonlinear terms of the modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equation vanish simultaneously. It is shown that in such cases there exists a specific balance between the leading nonlinear and dispersive terms. An extension to the mKdV equation is derived by means of combination of a sequence of asymptotic methods. The resulting equation contains a cubic and a quintic nonlinearity of the same magnitude and possesses solitary wave solutions of different polarity. The properties of smaller solutions resemble those for the solutions of the mKdV equation whereas the height of the taller solutions is limited and they become table-like. It is demonstrated numerically that the collisions of solitary wave solutions to the resulting equation are weakly inelastic: the basic properties of the counterparts experience very limited changes but the interactions are certainly accompanied by a certain level of radiation of small-amplitude waves.

The bottom pressure distribution under solitonic waves, travelling or fully reflected at a wall is analysed here. Results given by two kind of numerical models are compared. One of the models is based on the Green–Naghdi equations, while the other one is based on the fully nonlinear potential equations. The two models differ through the way in which wave dispersion is taken into account. This approach allows us to emphasize the influence of dispersion, in the case of travelling or fully reflected waves. The Green–Naghdi model is found to predict well the bottom pressure distribution, even when the quantitative representation of the runup height is not satisfactorily described.

Novikov's conjecture on the Riemann-Schottky problem: {\it the Jacobians of smooth algebraic curves are precisely those indecomposable principally polarized abelian varieties (ppavs) whose theta-functions provide solutions to the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) equation}, was the first evidence of nowadays well-established fact: connections between the algebraic geometry and the modern theory of integrable systems is beneficial for both sides. The purpose of this paper is twofold. Our first goal is to present a proof of the strongest known characterization of a Jacobian variety in this direction: {\it an indecomposable ppav X is the Jacobian of a curve if and only if its Kummer variety K(X) has a trisecant line} and the solution of the characterization problem of principally polarized Prym varieties. The latter problem is almost as old and famous as the Riemann-Schottky problem but is much harder. In some sense the Prym varieties may be geometrically the easiest-to-understand ppavs beyond Jacobians, and studying them may be a first step towards understanding the geometry of more general abelian varieties as well. Our second and primary objective is to take this opportunity to elaborate on motivations underlining the proposed solution of the Riemann-Schottky problem, to introduce a certain circle of ideas and methods, developed in the theory of soliton equations, and to convince the reader that they are algebro-geometric in nature, simple and universal enough to be included in the Handbook of moduli.

We develop a method for the application of the Inverse Scattering Technique to the analysis of surface water waves and present here some evidence on its efficiency. The general idea is to interpret nonlinear wave groups in terms of soliton-type structures - envelope solitons in the framework of the integrable nonlinear Schrodinger equation. Such analysis can improve understanding of the nonlinear wave group dynamics and, in particular, could help to elaborate tools for short-term forecasting of dangerous waves in the sea. The technique may also be applied to the problem of the information decoding in soliton based optical transmission lines.

The dynamics of a two-component Davydov-Scott (DS) soliton with a small mismatch of the initial location or velocity of the high-frequency (HF) component was investigated within the framework of the Zakharov-type system of two coupled equations for the HF and low-frequency (LF) fields. In this system, the HF field is described by the linear Schrödinger equation with the potential generated by the LF component varying in time and space. The LF component in this system is described by the Korteweg-de Vries equation with a term of quadratic influence of the HF field on the LF field. The frequency of the DS soliton`s component oscillation was found analytically using the balance equation. The perturbed DS soliton was shown to be stable. The analytical results were confirmed by numerical simulations.

Radiation conditions are described for various space regions, radiation-induced effects in spacecraft materials and equipment components are considered and information on theoretical, computational, and experimental methods for studying radiation effects are presented. The peculiarities of radiation effects on nanostructures and some problems related to modeling and radiation testing of such structures are considered.

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.