Быть женщиной: Динамика массовых представлений о гендерных ролях
The article analyzes the dynamics of mass attitudes towards gender roles based on survey data. In the Soviet time a woman was mobilized twice - as an employee and as a reproductive unit, while full employment in the labor market did not exempt a woman from household chores and childcare. Normative paternity in Soviet times was reduced to a minimum of duties. The reduction of state regulation and control in the late 1980s gave rise to the emergence of new behavioral scenarios, primarily related to the reduction of the area of the forbidden, the removal of sanctimonious taboos. However, in the mid-2000s, the trend changed: The data capture an increase in conservative trends.
The trends of archaization are not specific to Russia, they are present in all societies with varying degrees of severity. Analysis of survey data allows us to identify two poles of attitudes towards family and gender roles. If in the countries of the “old Europe” support for traditionalist views on gender and family roles is consistently reduced, in the countries of the former socialist camp there is a tendency to strengthen them.
Russia’s declining birth rate is linked to a delay in a family’s decision to have children and to uncertainty about the place of children in a couple’s relationship. Despite the rise of individualism and the importance of career and self-realization, however, the family retains a very important place in Russian society.
The article substantiates comparative approach to study the culture of old age in modern Russia and China. Russian and Chinese cultures of old age are perceived as difficult semiotic spheres. The article demonstrates the role of national traditions in shaping the values of the culture of old age. The article reveals the role of dominant meanings and images in the dialog of generations against the background of modern globalization. The interaction of generations is within the context of archetypal images, cultural values and behavioral patterns. Communication between generations is a prerequisite for the realization of national idea in Russia and China.
The paper considers the problems of semantic derivation. The research is based on word-forming paradigms of Adjectives. Special attention is paid to comparative analyses of word-formation models in the Russian and French languages.
Collection of articles devoted to various aspects of science in comparative post-Soviet countries and the analysis of the practical use of the comparative legal method to regulate criminal, international, administrative, civil relations, and so on.
The efficiency of social reforms in different countries mostly depends on the extent to which they can be accepted by people. Moreover, even if the problems are similar, the reasons may differ, which can lead to fail in applying existing laws of one state to another one. Bribery, as shows the Corruption Perception Index, calculated by Transparency International, is a typical problem for developing countries – that also matches research (Levin & Satarov, 2000; Ilzetzki, 2010) concluding that corruption has roots in socialist regimes and that in recently established political stability instable economic situation leads to growth in crime. The main problem within the scope of this project is to identify the relation between corruption perception and level of trust in the society and to distinguish the differences in factors affecting these characteristics in post-soviet countries. The research discoveres that distrust matters a lot for the problem in Russia and suggests further examining European countries in order to explain the difference in trust.
The fifth edition of "American Studies" is the result of activity of certain scientific laboratory - Center for the Study U.S. Kursk State University, so he opens with an article that characterizes his work. This edition includes articles: on topical issues in contemporary Russian American Studies. Collected together specialists from Moscow, St. Petersburg, Kursk, Samara, Saransk, Saratov, Kirov, Bryansk, Nizhny Novgorod, Kaliningrad, as well as colleagues from Belarus (Minsk) and Ukraine (Kiev, Kirovograd, Lugansk). Its special feature is the collaboration of historians, linguists who study the United States. Problematic articles of interest for the variety and importance of scientific subjects dealt with in them. For the convenience of readers materials in the collection are divided into separate headings. Presented studies reflect the realities of domestic and foreign policy history of the U.S. XVIII-XXI centuries. As well as the sphere of American life such as history, literature, culture. A series of articles based on archival materials. In light of new approaches to the study of history should highlight the narrative, discursive approach, gender studies, comparative linguistics and multidisciplinary, achieve intellectual history. Materials: a collection designed for historians, researchers, teachers and higher secondary school students, bachelors, masters and PhD students, as well as anyone interested in the problems of U.S. history .
How are professors paid? Can the "best and brightest" be attracted to the academic profession? With universities facing international competition, which countries compensate their academics best, and which ones lag behind? Paying the Professoriate examines these questions and provides key insights and recommendations into the current state of the academic profession worldwide. Paying the Professoriate is the first comparative analysis of global faculty salaries, remuneration, and terms of employment. Offering an in-depth international comparison of academic salaries in twenty-eight countries across public, private, research, and non-research universities, chapter authors shed light on the conditions and expectations that shape the modern academic profession. The top researchers on the academic profession worldwide analyze common themes, trends, and the impact of these matters on academic quality and research productivity. In a world where higher education capacity is a key driver of national innovation and prosperity, and nations seek to fast-track their economic growth through expansion of higher education systems, policy makers and administrators increasingly seek answers about what actions they should be taking. Paying the Professoriate provides a much needed resource, illuminating the key issues and offering recommendations.
One of the most popular statements in the systemic transition literature since the second half of the 1990th is that different experiences of the CEE and Baltic states, on the one hand, and the most of the CIS countries, on the other hand, are embedded in different social norms and values, encouraging efforts in the new EU member states and preventing it in some of CIS countries.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.