Regionalisms and Imperialisms in the Making of the Russian Far East, 1903–1926
Tracing the emergence of the Russian Far East as a new region of the Russian Empire, revolutionary Russia, and the Soviet Union through regionalist and imperialist discourses and policies, this article briefly discusses Russian expansion in the Pacific littoral, outlines the history of regionalism in North Asia during the revolutionary and early Soviet periods, and focuses on the activities of the Far Eastern Council of People's Commissars (Dal΄sovnarkom), the Far Eastern Republic (FER), and the Far Eastern Revolutionary Committee (Dal΄'revkom). Inspired by Siberian regionalism and other takes on post-imperial decentralization, the Bolshevik Aleksandr Mikhailovich Krasnoshchekov and other regional politicians became the makers of the new region from within. Meanwhile, the legacies of the empire's expansionism, the Bolshevik “new imperialism” in Asia, and the Japanese military presence in the region during the Russian Civil War accompanied the consolidation of the Russian Far East.
This article is devoted to the development of migration in the Russian Far East over the past centuries. Analyzing census data (from the first census in the Russian Empire in 1897 to the Russian Census 2010), the author investigates temporal and spatial transformations of migration processes in the Russian Far East regions.
Using the concept of lifetime migration, the author reveals, what regions and territories provided the growth of the population of the Russian Far East during the last centuries, where these people were going and what results it produced. This paper also tries to explain, how the Russian Far East modified from the most colonized and actively increasing population region to the most quickly losing it territory in the Russian Federation.
This concept allows to estimate migration over a long period in the absence of other reliable sources of information. The Russian Far East made the transition from the most colonized and actively increasing population to the territory of most losing it.
Since 2015, the Free Port of Vladivostok regime has been functioning on the territory of five Far Eastern regions. It offers a simplified customs regime and a reduction in customs duties for entrepreneurs, as well as tax benefits and an immunity from time-consuming audit inspections. The Ministry for Development of Russian Far East introduced this economic instrument along with the Advanced Special Economic Zones to create an economic environment that will attract foreign investment to these territories, foster grassroots entrepreneurialism, and stimulate international trade with the Asia-Pacific countries. However, the local stakeholders negatively assess the results of the Free Port’s functioning. Over the past five years, the regime has not been able to fully reveal its potential. This article presents an analysis of Free Port’s development and highlights the most significant problems that impede the implementation of the concept of the Free Port, including legal regulation, strategic contradictions, malpractices, and infrastructural restrictions. The study is based on the analysis of official documents and legislative acts, statistical data, and analytical materials published by the Ministry for the Development of the Russian Far East and the Far East Development Corporation, as well as sixteen semi-structured interviews in Vladivostok.
In The Baron's Cloak, Willard Sunderland tells the epic story of the Russian Empire's final decades through the arc of the Baron's life, which spanned the vast reaches of Eurasia. Tracking Ungern's movements, he transits through the Empire's multinational borderlands, where the country bumped up against three other doomed empires, the Habsburg, Ottoman, and Qing, and where the violence unleashed by war, revolution, and imperial collapse was particularly vicious. In compulsively readable prose that draws on wide-ranging research in multiple languages, Sunderland recreates Ungern’s far-flung life and uses it to tell a compelling and original tale of imperial success and failure in a momentous time.
Th e last two decades have seen a rapid expansion of Regional trade agreements (RTA) including republics of the Community of Independent States (CIS). Th e reason for this phenomenon is that the RTAs have certain advantages. At the same time the RTAs can greatly complicate the trading environment, creating a web of incoherent rules. In order to avoid a further growing tension between RTAs and Multilateral Trading System there is only one way: harmonizing both.
Russia’s recent domestic and foreign policy steps demonstrate that the Russian government is setting a long-term geopolitical task of integrating the country into the Asia-Pacific through the accelerated development of its Siberian and Far Eastern regions. While attempts to reorient Russia toward the East are not completely new in the Russian history, this chapter demonstrates that now the geopolitical setting is different and this time conditions are ripe for Russia to make this change feasible. These circumstances open up new opportunities for international cooperation in the development of Russia’s Far East and Siberia, and many countries display interest in cooperation with Russia. However, to make international cooperation blossom in Russia’s eastern regions, Russia, together with foreign partners, needs to deal with a range of structural challenges and make changes accordingly.