Родословная "жизни сообща": еще раз о скачкàх эволюции
From the standpoint of historical evolutionary methodology the origin of sociality is analyzed on a larger than commonly accepted scale - as a problem of emergence and growing complexity of “life together”. This approach provides an opportunity to discover a connection between “life together” and leaps of evolution or, as A.S. Severtsov puts it, aromorphoses of complex systems. The authors argue that a leap of “life together” to a qualitatively new level leads to emergence of sociality based on communicative interactions of non-identical individuals. A universal role in development of any complex systems is played by pre-adaptation to uncertainty. According to biologistR. Goldsmith's hypothesis, the most impressive form of pre-adaptation is evolutionarily supported “hopeful freaks” (similar to “degenerates” in fantastic utopias by A. and B. Strugatskys), potentially capable of occupying new niches in case of problems unsolvable within the limits of existing adaptations.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.