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ЗАМЕЧАНИЯ И ДОБАВЛЕНИЯ К КОММЕНТАРИЯМ ЯРЛЫКА, ВЫДАННОГО ФРАНЦИСКАНЦАМ ХАНОМ УЗБЕКОМ В 1314 ГОДУ

Золотоордынское обозрение. 2018. № 6(4). С. 783-806.
Сочнев Ю. В.

The article continues the direction of research aimed at the study of the Golden Horde Khan Uzbek’s label (1312/13–1341), issued to the Franciscans of the Golden Horde on March 20, 1314. The  data analysis of this act is should be based on the conclusions about the success of the previous Catholic missionary activity in China and in the Eastern regions of the Mongolian Empire. The vigorous efforts of Jovanni of Montecorvino and his brothers-in-arms in Beijing had apparently been the reason that made the Great Khagan (Emperor) Kuluk (1307-1311) to be the first who granted Tarkhan act to the Catholic missionaries. His successor on the Imperial throne the Great Kaan Buyantu (1311-1320), during the period from 1311 to 1314 confirmed, most likely, the privileges given to Catholic by his senior brother. These acts were precedents for similar decisions of the rulers of the Mongolian Ulus. And  on March 20, 1314, the Franciscan preachers achieved the issue of the new label from the Khan of Uzbek who granted freedom of actions in the Volga-black Sea steppes. It was facilitated by the development of the General Imperial political situation in the Mongolian Empire, which led to the formal registration of the vassal dependence of the Golden Horde rulers on the great kaans.

The article substantiates the new findings about the recipients of this label awards who, naturally are considered to be the Franciscan missionaries. But now, without any additional information, it is impossible to establish who entered their circle. Geographically the Tarkhan privileges granted by the Golden Horde ruler extended to nomadic camps and villages owned directly by the Golden Horde and they didn’t belong to the Christian vassal territories in the Western part of the Golden Horde state. This circumstance does not allow to support the opinion expressed earlier that the recipient of the label was the Bishop of Kaffa. The translation of the label of Khan Uzbek in 1314, which has reached us, is an interesting source, the study of which will help to advance in various aspects of the Golden Horde history.