Гендерное восприятие Японии в России и СССР: от страны женщин к стране самураев (с конца XIX в. до Второй мировой войны).
The word "samurai" is firmly established in the modern Russian language and, along with Fujiyama, geisha and sakura, is one of the "calling cards" of Japan. However, it was not always, of course. This article traces the initial process of perceiving the concept of "samurai" in pre-revolutionary Russia and the Soviet Union: from the 1890s, from the first military victories of rapidly modernizing Japan, to the Russo-Japanese War and further to the beginning of the Second World War. Initially endowed with signs of "childishness" or "femininity," softness and grace, the image of Japan is gradually becoming "manly" and is increasingly associated with the concept of "samurai." This concept itself corresponds at first with such qualities as belligerence and cruelty, but also loyalty to the lord and “knightly” honor; Often, following Nitobe Inazo, the best qualities of the Japanese are generally elevated to the samurai tradition. In the future, the Japanese appear in an increasingly caricature form as greedy, but powerless aggressors; At first, this image was not associated with the concept of "samurai", but by the 1930s. fused with it. At the same time, Soviet authors criticize the "feminine" image of Japan; both the ruling exploiter and the exploited worker most often have "male" traits. The article traces the early Japanese borrowings in domestic dictionaries of foreign words, reviews of the Japanese in the writings of Russian and Soviet writers, the characteristics of the country and its inhabitants in popular publications devoted to Japan, as well as propaganda texts and images.