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Article

Гибридные суды как институт транзитивного правосудия

This article examines a new phenomenon in international criminal justice, namely so-called hybrid or internationalized courts, in which foreign judges participate along with national judges. The nature of hybrid courts is under-lined as one of the elements of transitional justice that is supported by the United Nations in the interest of countries that are just gaining their statehood or are rebounding after civil wars. The example of specific hybrid judicial institutions reveals the question of the quantitative composition of such courts and countries that most often delegate their representatives to such structures. The advantages and disadvantages of such courts are analyzed and problems are identified that are related to the definition of the law to be applied. In particular, three options are possible: firstly, the procedural rules of hybrid courts are derived from the national system of the country in question; secondly, these rules are derived from the workings of an international tribunal; and thirdly, the rules are derived from legislation that is specially passed for the purpose of a they hybrid tribunal. Particular attention is paid to the difficulties of the psychological and socio-cultural nature that arise when foreign judges work in an alien professional environment. The problem of revising the decisions of hybrid courts is touched upon, and a conclusion is made about the extremely meager procedural resources available for this revision. The possibility of using a hybrid approach in constitutional justice is considered, using Bosnia and Herzegovina and Ukraine as examples. Emphasis is placed on some of the problems that arise in the selection of judges in designated international tribunals.