Вирусоподобные частицы как инструмент для производства вакцин
The paper discusses the techniques which are currently implemented for vaccine production based on virus-like particles (VLPs). The factors which determine the characteristics of VLP monomers assembly are provided in detail. Analysis of the literature demonstrates that the development of the techniques of VLP production and immobilization of target antigens on their surface have led to the development of universal platforms which make it possible for virtually any known antigen to be exposed on the particle surface in a highly concentrated form. As a result, the focus of attention has shifted from the approaches to VLP production to the development of a precise interface between the organism’s immune system and the peptides inducing a strong immune response to pathogens or the organism’s own pathological cells. Immunome-specified techniques for vaccine design and the prospects of immunoprophylaxis are discussed. Certain examples of vaccines against viral diseases and cancers are considered.
The results of an experimental study of a sensor designed to detect and measure the concentration of nanoparticles in an aqueous medium based on optical dielectric microresonators with "whispering gallery" modes are presented. The change in the frequency and Q of the eigenmodes of the microresonator was studied in its interaction with silver nanoparticles. It is shown that this type of sensor can be used to measure extremely small concentrations of nanoparticles.
We report the first experimental evidence for the mitogenic action of cerium(IV) oxide and cerium(III) fluoride nanoparticles (CONs and CFNs) on the regeneration of a whole organism – freshwater flatworms Schmidtea mediterranea (planarian). Both types of cerium-containing nanoparticles are shown to be a highly potent mitogen for planaria. Both CONs and CFNs, in micro- and nanomolar concentrations, markedly accelerate planarian blastema growth, due to the enhancement of cellular proliferation, causing an increase in the mitotic index and in the quantity of blastema cells in regenerating planaria. CONs provided maximum activity at concentrations which were two orders of magnitude lower than those for CeF3. The valence state of cerium in cerium-containing nanoparticles plays a significant role in the planarian regeneration mechanism: CeO2 nanoparticles containing predominantly Ce4+ species presumably scavenge wound induced reactive oxygen species and moderately activate gene expression processes, while the regenerative action of CeF3 nanoparticles containing only Ce3+ species is manifested in the pronounced expression of the genes involved in cell division, differentiation and migration. This is the first report on the effect of cerium-containing nanoparticles on tissue regeneration in vivo, further revealing the mechanisms of their biological action, which enhances the possibility of their use in cellular technologies.
This paper addresses hybrid ion exchange membranes fabricated by the synthesis of amorphous zirconium phosphate (dopant contents from 0.5 to 24 wt%) directly in the pore and channel system of heterogeneous cation-exchange membrane RALEX® CM (by in situ technique). The incorporation of zirconium phosphate nanoparticles into the membrane system of pores and channels leads to the displacement of the pore water. As a result, the cation transport numbers increase. The hybrid materials thus obtained are characterized by increased ionic resistance and enhanced monovalent ion selectivity. The former effect was eliminated by fabrication of a surface-modified membrane. The relative simplicity of modification, together with the benefits of the hybrid materials make them promising for some membrane processes. Using 31P MAS NMR and elemental analysis, considerable difference between the zirconium phosphate composition inside and outside the membrane was found.
This book presents the results of analysis of human capital in Murmansk and Archangelsk regions, republics of Komi and Karelia, and Nenets Autonomous Region. The authors considered migration processes and their trends; some of these were analyzed at municipal level. Having taken in account the importance of life expectancy as a complex indicator of sustainable development, the authors identified the periods of its growth and decline. Age-specific differences were also scrutinized. The relative contributions of major causes of mortality in life expectancy at birth were estimated. The authors described the dynamics of population of small indigenous peoples of the North (Vepsians, Nenets, Komi), the problems associated with their self-identification, census administration, migration, childbirth and life expectancy. The authors analyzed climate change as the new health risk factor, which affects safety of food and drinking water, accessibility of medical services and specific practices of deer-herding. A separate chapter of the book is devoted to current and future trends in working-age population until 2002. Each territory of Barents Sea Region displayed its own peculiar behavior of this indicator. The authors compared selected social, economic and demographic indicators in European part of Russian Arctic with those in foreign countries which belong to Barents Sea Region. This monograph was a product of collaborative efforts of the researchers from Economic Forecasting Institute and Institute of Demography of Higher School of Economics. B. A. Revich, Doctor of Medicine, and B. N. Porfiryev, Corresponding Member of Russian Academy of Sciences, edited this book.
This prototype development explains the challenges encountered during the ISO/IEEE 11073 standard implementation process. The complexity of the standard and the consequent heavy requirements, which have not encouraged software engineers to adopt the standard. The developing complexity evaluation drives us to propose two possible implementation strategies that cover almost all possible use cases and eases handling the standard by non-expert users. The first one is focused on medical devices (MD) and proposes a low-memory and low-processor usage technique. It is based on message patterns that allow simple functions to generate ISO/IEEE 11073 messages and to process them easily. MD act as X73 agent. Second one is focused on more powerful device X73 manager, which do not have the MDs' memory and processor usage constraints. The protocol between Agent and Manager is point-to-point and we can distribute the functionality between devices.
Developed both implementation X73 Agent and Manager will cut developing time for applications based on ISO/EEE 11073.
In the internal medicine wide spectrum the gastroenterology is one of the chapters, less enlightened by the scientific evidence. It does not mean that the practice of the grasntroenterology may ot be improved by the systematic use of the approaches of the evidence based medicine
This volume presents new results in the study and optimization of information transmission models in telecommunication networks using different approaches, mainly based on theiries of queueing systems and queueing networks .
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.