Нестрогий байесовский подход к проверке допущения об измерительной инвариантности: иллюстрация на примере ценностей выбора
Measurement invariance is a key prerequisite for meaningful comparative studies using survey data. For many popular constructs in social sciences, unfortunately, measurement invariance does not hold. This paper illustrates a novel and efficient approach to measurement invariance testing, known as approximate Bayesian invariance. This approach has been shown in a couple of recent studies to be quite effective in handling a relatively small amount of non-invariance in latent constructs. This powerful methodology is applied to establishing cross-national comparability of pro-choice values, a sub-dimension of a well-known index of emancipative values (EVI) reflecting people’s attitudes to abortion, divorce, and homosexuality. Although the classical, or exact, approach to invariance testing suggests that neither full scalar, nor even full metric invariance hold for pro-choice values across ten cultural zones of the Welzel-Inglehart cultural map of the world, the Bayesian approach offers a rather optimistic conclusion that pro-choice values are approximately invariant not only across zones, but, for each World Values Survey wave separately, also across all countries covered in that wave.
Beliefs about personhood are understood to be a defining feature of individualism-collectivism (I-C), but they have been insufficiently explored, given the emphasis of research on values and self-construals. We propose the construct of contextualism, referring to beliefs about the importance of context in understanding people, as a facet of cultural collectivism. A brief measure was developed and refined across 19 nations (Study 1: N = 5,241), showing good psychometric properties for cross-cultural use and correlating well at the nation level with other supposed facets and indicators of I-C. In Study 2 (N = 8,652), nation-level contextualism predicted ingroup favoritism, corruption, and differential trust of ingroup and outgroup members, while controlling for other facets of I-C, across 35 nations. We conclude that contextualism is an important part of cultural collectivism. This highlights the importance of beliefs alongside values and self-representations and contributes to a wider understanding of cultural processes.
Comparability of scores between culturally and socially different is always a problematic question. It is even more questionable when the scores of latent variables are compared. Latent variables are frequently measured with several indicators, and the structure of indicators may differ between groups, resulting in the scores of the latent variables that may turn to be very different in terms of configuration and scale. This problem was labeled measurement invariance (MI) and became a necessary part of the studies with latent constructs. The lack of MI between groups may lead to biased or wrong conclusions. MI is an issue especially in cross-cultural studies, in which cultural differences as well as translation of questionnaire may evolve differences in latent construct structures. The paper discusses different methods of assessing MI and uses multiple group confirmatory factor analysis to test MI of four Schwartz higher order values among four populations surveyed during 4 and 5th rounds of European Social Survey. Since our interest is the sources and the extent of MI, only samples surveyed in Russian language were selected. The results show only partial scalar invariance that allows for comparison of means across groups. However, full scalar invariance is not achieved due to the differences in translation to Russian between four countries.
Three dimensions of subordinate-supervisor relations (affective attachment, deference to supervisor, and personal-life inclusion) that had been found by Chen et al. (2009) to be characteristic of a guanxi relationship between subordinates and their supervisors in China were surveyed in Taiwan, Singapore and six non-Chinese cultural contexts. The affective attachment and deference subscales demonstrated full metric invariance whereas the personal-life inclusion subscale was found to have partial metric invariance across all eight samples. Structural equation modelling revealed that the affective attachment dimension had a cross-nationally invariant positive relationship to affective organizational commitment and a negative relationship to turnover intention. The deference to the supervisor dimension had invariant positive relationships with both affective and normative organizational commitment. The personal-life inclusion dimension was unrelated to all outcomes. These results indicate the relevance of aspects of guanxi to superior-subordinate relations in non-Chinese cultures. Studies of indigenous concepts can contribute to a broader understanding of organizational behavior.
This chapter focuses on one specific way of conducting analysis of measurement invariance of latent classes. We describe group-as-covariate approach, focus on unordered latent class models, explicate levels of invariance and procedures required to test them making strong links with factor analysis, and supplement it with a detailed example. In addition to the application provided by Siegers (this volume), we describe and show how to test for metric invariance of classifications. The chapter is accompnied by an empirical illustration with basic value latent classes in West&North vs. East Europe.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.