The 2π charged particles analyzer: All‐sky camera concept and development for space missions
Increasing the temporal resolution and instant coverage of velocity space of space plasma measurements is one of the key issues for experimentalists. Today, the top‐hat plasma analyzer appears to be the favorite solution due to its relative simplicity and the possibility to extend its application by adding a mass‐analysis section and an electrostatic angular scanner. Similarly, great success has been achieved in MMS mission using such multiple top‐hat analyzers to achieve unprecedented temporal resolution. An instantaneous angular coverage of charged particles measurements is an alternative approach to pursuing the goal of high time resolution. This was done with 4‐D Fast Omnidirectional Nonscanning Energy Mass Analyzer and, to a lesser extent, by DYMIO instruments for Mars‐96 and with the Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer instrument for MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging mission. In this paper we describe, along with precursors, a plasma analyzer with a 2π electrostatic mirror that was developed originally for the Phobos‐Soil mission with a follow‐up in the frame of the BepiColombo mission and is under development for future Russian missions. Different versions of instrument are discussed along with their advantages and drawbacks
This paper describes modeling of spacecraft charging dynamics which is used in COULOMB-2 code in the case of spacecraft surface complex shape. The modeling of spacecraft charging is carried out via numerically solving the system of differential equations for time variations of local electric charge on every discrete element of the spacecraft surface. The presented computation results are obtained for spacecraft charging in hot magnetosphere plasma for several spacecraft design elements in a time interval of 20–10 000 s. The results are compared with the similar ones obtained with the NASCAP-2k and MUSCAT codes, and a good consistency was found.
We consider the dispersion characteristics of electromagnetic waves in a plasma with strong magnetic field and equal content of relativistic electrons and positrons, whose synchrotron radiation can be the source of optical radiation of a pulsar. It is shown that when a small fraction of nonrelativistic protons with a nonequilibrium distribution function is present in the plasma, an effective instability can develop at frequencies below the first harmonic of the relativistic gyrofrequency of electrons, namely, at the harmonics of the proton gyrofrequency. This instability leads to the excitation of the O- and X-mode electromagnetic waves, which can, in principle, be related with the observed pulsar radiation. In part I of this paper, we study dispersion characteristics of low-frequency electromagnetic waves (with frequencies below the relativistic gyrofrequency of electrons) in an ultrarelativistic electron-positron plasma with an isotropic momentum distribution function of the particles. Instabilities of the O- and X-mode waves and the conditions of escape of the radiation from the region of strong magnetic field into a rarefied isotropic plasma will be considered in paper II. The results can be used in the interpretation of known experimental data on the dynamic pulsar radiation spectra obtained with high temporal and frequency resolution.
It is proposed to consider the scalings of anomalous transport (superdiusion), determined experimentally in turbulent plasma of the Earth's magnetosphere and laboratory plasma of thermonuclear facilities and processed using modern statistical cascade models of strong turbulence with intermittency, also within the approach of physical kinetics to the theory of plasma turbulence.
The dynamics of a two-component Davydov-Scott (DS) soliton with a small mismatch of the initial location or velocity of the high-frequency (HF) component was investigated within the framework of the Zakharov-type system of two coupled equations for the HF and low-frequency (LF) fields. In this system, the HF field is described by the linear Schrödinger equation with the potential generated by the LF component varying in time and space. The LF component in this system is described by the Korteweg-de Vries equation with a term of quadratic influence of the HF field on the LF field. The frequency of the DS soliton`s component oscillation was found analytically using the balance equation. The perturbed DS soliton was shown to be stable. The analytical results were confirmed by numerical simulations.
Radiation conditions are described for various space regions, radiation-induced effects in spacecraft materials and equipment components are considered and information on theoretical, computational, and experimental methods for studying radiation effects are presented. The peculiarities of radiation effects on nanostructures and some problems related to modeling and radiation testing of such structures are considered.
This volume presents new results in the study and optimization of information transmission models in telecommunication networks using different approaches, mainly based on theiries of queueing systems and queueing networks .
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.