Auditory perception in the aging brain: the role of inhibition and facilitation in early processing
Aging affects the interplay between peripheral and cortical auditory processing. Previous studies have demonstrated that older adults are less able to regulate afferent sensory information and are more sensitive to distracting information. Using auditory event-related potentials we investigated the role of cortical inhibition on auditory and audiovisual processing in younger and older adults. Across puretone, auditory and audiovisual speech paradigms older adults showed a consistent pattern of inhibitory deficits, manifested as increased P50 and/or N1 amplitudes and an absent or significantly reduced N2. Older adults were still able to use congruent visual articulatory information to aid auditory processing but appeared to require greater neural effort to resolve conflicts generated by incongruent visual information. In combination, the results provide support for the Inhibitory Deficit Hypothesis of aging. They extend previous findings into the audiovisual domain and highlight older adults' ability to benefit from congruent visual information during speech processing.
This article analyzes the views of the Mexican poet and essayist Octavio Paz on the language, the word and the speech. Particular attention is paid to the problem of speech, as well as concepts such as transparency and silence of the word
Despite the fact that widely used temperament questionnaires (for example, Eyesenck's EPI, Strelau's Pavlovian temperament survey) are based on different theoretical approaches, their dimensions are usually interrelated in a strict way, i.e. their scales correlate with each other in a regular manner (Rusalov 1990, Strelau 2009). But this is not always the case, and for some subjects dataobtained by different questionnaires give discordant results (Ramendik, 2010, 2008). The nature of this irregularity is unclear, and the aim of the present study was to investigate the electroencephalographic correlates of such discordance.
The aim of this paper is to study manifestations of temperament in auditory evoked potentials (EP) during the odd-ball paradigm. Three questionnaires were used; Pavlovian Temperament Survey (PTS), Structure of Temperament Questionnaire (STQ), Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI). All subjects were divided into two groups with high (I) and low (II) concordance between the questionnaires’ data. Amplitudes of N2 wave and of N2-P3 complex were found to be statistically different in the two groups. In group I, a number of significant relations between questionnaires' dimensions and EPs parameters were shown; in group II such relations were much less numerous. The data obtained show that temperament is determined by brain processes of perception and attention, and also hint at the existence of individuals with fundamentally different patterns of psychophysiological manifestations of temperament.
The perception of complex auditory information such as complete speech sequences develops during human ontogeny. In order to explore age differences in the auditory perception of predictable speech sequences we compared event-related potentials (ERPs) recorded in 5- to 6-yearold children (N = 15) and adults (N = 15) in response to anticipated speech sequences as successive and reverse digital series with randomly omitted digits. The ERPs obtained from the omitted digits significantly differed in the amplitude and latency of the N200 and P300 components between adults and children, the N400 and LPC components were more pronounced in children in the right frontal area for the digits presentation. These findings indicate that the perception of a successive speech structure is less automated in children and requires a detailed analysis of the successive structure and error detection. These differences in auditory ERPs reflect developmental changes in the auditory perception of speech sequences and can serve as indicators of the maturity of cognitive functions in children.
Contemporary philosophy of language studies a broad range of questions connected with the functioning of language in the environment. There can be singled out three paradigms of language existence: speech, written language, and digital language. Diachronically language appeared and initially existed in the form of speech. The paper regards speech as a biological ability of social adaptation in language environment having an orienting function. With the advent of writing, people entered into a textual environment. Written language is an artifact, a part and parcel of our life. Nowadays, we witness a new era of digital language and virtual environment. Digital language is seen to be interactive, dialogical, iconic, being a hybrid of written and oral types of languages. A digital/electronic text is simiotically charged with icons, types of fonts, color, position, pictures and videos. The paper presents a discourse analysis triggered by the creolized text post on Facebook. Semiotically speaking, a creolized text forms a unity of verbal and non-verbal constituents which afford an observer to be part of it and interpret it. In case of Facebook posting, discourse is distributed and expanded because many people can see or take part in it. The example brought in the paper shows that the discourse unfolding on the timeline is not necessarily linear because it can spread in branches or shorter discourses. A post can encourage Facebook users to expand it into a discourse or even many discourses. Commenters use colloquial language, emotionally charged with emoji (smiles), morphological, lexical, and semantic means.
51st Academy of Aphasia Proceedings
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.