Forthcoming changes in world population distribution and global connectivity: implications for global foresight
For the first-world citizens, globalisation seems to be an all-pervasive phenomenon. Our research reveals that global connectivity rates differ dramatically for various countries and correspondingly, their populations. What will this picture look like in, say, 50 years? We combine demographic projections with our knowledge on the recent dynamics of national rates of global connectivity to estimate the proportion of world population which is expected to live in countries with varying rates of global connectivity. We show that the distribution of world population among the states with various rates of global connectivity is bound to experience significant changes in the coming decades, which should be taken into account at various attempts of providing global foresight.
In March 2011 scholars met in Prague at the conference Interculturalism, Meaning and Identity. This event revitalised this important theme related to Diversity and Recognition. The terms 'interculturalism' and 'integration' are experiencing a renaissance. As the extent of human movement between nations increases attempts are made to balance cultural difference and social cohesion. In some contexts immigration and settlement policies are becoming more draconian in response. Because of this, interculturalism can take on many meanings. However, pivotal to the way interculturalism is understood is identification. As the relationship between nation, ethnicity and language becomes more complex so too do the ways in which people represent them selves. The cultural resources drawn on and the processes used to form identities are examined in this truly international collection. So too are the implications of these developments for how we theorise culture, meaning and identity.
The article views the recent fertility dynamics in a number of Tropical African countries for which the necessary data is available. It is shown that in the majority of these countries fertility started to decline in the mid-1970-s – early 1990s. However, in the mid-1990s and early 2000s a mass fertility stall occurred throughout the great part of Tropical Africa. Importantly, in most cases fertility got stalled at very high levels, more than 5 children per woman. A decade-long absence of fertility decline bears serious threats of demographic explosions. We present some ways of avoiding the catastrophic scenarios.
This chapter explores the nature of the 2008 crisis and the channels through which it affected the performance of Russian firms. Based on the findings of manufacturing industry survey, the evidence suggests that all manufacturing firms were affected by the crisis and there is no single and dominant transmission channel. Crisis reactions were significantly related to participation in international markets, although participation in trade, external borrowing or FDI can not explain recession by themselves. The reversal of growth was mainly caused by demand shock, and following that, by financial constraints. Thus hypothesis that blames overheating of internal demand in the years prior to the crisis seems to receive statistical backing. Globalised companies, thogh hit by external shocks, were better prepared to pay the cost and balance the consequences of the crisis.
The paper explores income based and non-monetary dimensions of inequality in Russia. It is argued that globalisation exacerbated inequality at least in three ways. Firstly, the adoption of global neo-liberal economic concepts resulted in an excessive reliance on market forces and a curtailment of social guarantees which produced a rise of wealth and income differentiation and undermined equality of opportunity. Secondly, the liberalisation of foreign trade and global competition gave impetus to a rapid development of the fuel sector exacerbating the structural bias in economy and wage differentiation. Thirdly, globalisation diversified employment opportunities for certain categories of workers with access to the international labour market which offered much better terms of employment as compared to Russian standards. Globalisation provided new opportunities for development and individual success but in the absence of a strong state commitment to equitable provision of social goods it is bound to exacerbate inequality problem.
The economic crisis of 2008, starting from US banking crisis, affected the economic and political developments in varied ways around the world. This edited volume examines the imact of the crisis on Eastern Europe and Russia, and the resulting policy responces. Taken as a whole, the economies of the former state social countries - frequently still referred to as transition economies - were hit hard by the crisis, suffering falls in GDP in 2009 that were deeper than the average around the world. However, there was considerable variety in the effects on individual countries, whilst some continuing to grow , others suffered quite exceptional falls in output. Policy responces were also quite diverse and do not obviously fit with the nature and severity of economic factors. The more general impacts on political life were also varied. In many cases very much the same governments continued in power, while in othere there were significant changes and signs of a growing instability in party and political structures. The articles in this book explore these differencies between countries and set them in a wider international context.
The chapter describes and analyses the main challenges and issues affecting the process of development of social work as a new profession in today’s Russia. At the end of the Soviet Union, the engagement of Russia with the West increased, but still the tensions between Russia and the West exist, and at times these tensions become even stronger. It is of particular interest to explore the specific implications of these relationships for social work. Since social work’s establishment as an occupation and training programme in early 1990s, educators, students, administrators and practitioners have not only implemented several shifts in the national policy agenda but have also addressed various global influences and incorporated them into the local policy context. The development of social work is being shaped by different power relations. Looking at these power relations from three interrelated analytical perspectives- those of actors, institutions and discourses – we will consider the role of international cooperation in the field of social work. We shall refer to the qualitative interviews with social work practitioners and manaters in three social service agencies conducted drign 2011-2012 in Saratov, Russia. These services were chosed because they were a part of international projects.
Social Work in a Global Context: Issues and Challenges offers diverse perspectives on social work in a globalized context. Chapters span countries where social work has recently emerged and those with a long-established professional tradition, adding to the richness of the discussion. These carefully chosen examples demonstrate the central premise of the volume―that social work is both a global profession and one that is heavily influenced by local context. The editors of this text on social work in an international context have brought together not only informative descriptive material from a number of countries and social work specialisms but also insightful analysis and reflections. These illustrate both the differences and the similarities in the practices and concepts of social work.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.