Экономика США: тенденции и вызовы текущего десятилетия
According to the common definition of unemployment, the unemployed are those who are not in paid employment or self-employment, are seeking work and are available for work. А job search model is estimated from a sample of the unemployed and from some extended samples of the jobless, obtained by loosening that definition gradually. Revealed similarities and differences constitute the result of the research.
We expect economic growth to remain strong in Poland and Latvia in 2016. Despite this robust growth, the new Polish government is likely to soften monetary and fiscal policies to further stimulate the economy, in our view. In 2015, the Latvian economy demonstrated strong resilience to external shocks.
In spite of a growing body of literature investigating the determinants of youth unemployment, studies at sub-national level are still scarce, especially for Russian regions. This article is an innovative attempt to analyse econometrically the key factors affecting the youth unemployment rate and the ratio between youth and total unemployment rates for 75 Russian regions in 2000–09. The existing literature on regional labour market performance and dynamics suggested the use of a large set of explanatory variables (with indicators of the level of economic development, the demographic situation and migration processes, and the export–import levels) in a GMM panel data analysis, taking into account both spatial correlation and endogeneity problems. Although we were searching for structural determinants, we also investigated the effect of the 2008–09 financial crisis. The econometric results, presented and discussed using several models, have key policy implications for both national and regional levels of government.
Free education, public heath care and social benefits that had been a fact of life for decades in the Soviet Union have now become an object of deep nostalgia for many people, especially the elderly. Social services enveloped Soviet society, controlling the activity and thoughts of people for more than 70 years. The state and its various agents carried out this double-faced task of care and control at all levels of social life, moving gradually from tough and selective schemes of social security and insurance to the “bright future” of a communist welfare state. The development of Soviet social policy followed the ideological formulae common in many industrial countries during the modernisation period. Our aim in this study was to use the forms taken by everyday life and the modern subject in the Soviet Union as a way to call into question our own certainty about how these phenomena work. Social care and social control practices were carried out by different professional and quasi-professional assistants—educators in youth and children’s cultural centres and clubs, activists in women’s organisations and trade unions, teachers at schools and educators in kindergartens and orphanages, nurses and visiting nurses at polyclinics, and officials of domestic affairs departments. The population viewed the government and its agents as the source of both well-being and trouble. This article focuses on social policy during the first decades of the “Republic of Labour” when the ideology of care and control was established in accordance with the demands of industrial growth, formulating particular definitions of normality and deviance. In this quest for normality, classifications of worthy and unworthy behaviour and activities were established, and the rhetoric distinguishing “us” and “them” intensified. We show how egalitarian social and democratic principles existed alongside conservative stratification guidelines without contradiction, and how the rhetoric of social care varied dramatically from its practical implementation.
The book is prepared by a group of leading russian and finnish experts on the field of labor law and social security law, and includes research of the most important problems and issues of the protection of social and labor rights in Russia and Finland. The book is also published in Finnish. The book will be usefull for academics, lecterures, magisters, post-graduate students, students of law faculties, trade union activists, stuff of the personnel daepartments and all interested in comparative labor law.
This Chapter is devoted to the study of the emergence and development of the international regulation of social security, its modern scope and specifics, as well as basic international principles, rights and freedoms in this sphere.
Textbook reflects the current level of development of social security law , the judicial practice of its implementation, the issues in dispute to be solved. Particular attention is paid to issues related to financing the social security system, ensuring its stability and warranty. The manual includes a section on regulatory frameworks social security abroad. Structure and volume of the material presented in the textbook , the curriculum meets the National Research University "Higher School of Economics" and takes into account the latest provisions of the legislation in this area. Its main objective - to help students in mastering the basic theoretical knowledge of the issues of social security law and the ability to navigate the complex legislation in the industry. At the end of chapters are questions for self . The manual is prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Federal state educational standard of higher education and the third generation includes the entire list of topics needed to build the required competencies and skills. Designed for bachelors, masters and PhD students of higher educational institutions , practitioners and all those interested in issues of social security law.