Старообрядчество в 1917 г.
In the article political views and political activities of Old Believers of the main soglasiyas (denominations) in 1917 are analyzed. Being till March 1917 on monarchist positions, after Nikolay's renunciation Old Believers supported Provisional government with enthusiasm, with mistrust having treated Soviets and revolutionary parties. They considered that the Provisional government is legitimate, and socialists "sow a distemper" and "excesses". The attitude towards Bolsheviks and personally to Lenin, Trotsky and other heads parties which were considered as the German agents was especially negative. Old Believers, having had all freedoms and opportunities, developed vigorous confessional activity. Also, having combined efforts of almost all soglasias, they developed the uniform Political program, including, for participation in the Constituent assembly. On the major questions the program was close to the cadet, but chiliastic colored. A part of Old Belief peasants did not support her. October events were apprehended by Old Believers as "scourge of God". However they did not take any actions, hoping for the Constituent assembly which was given sacral character.
Modern social sciences view traditionalism as an opposite of innovations and economic growth. In Russia Old Believers was characterized by the deep traditionalism of their rituals and everyday life. The Old Believers, however, in 19th C. turned out to be leaders in technical and economic innovations. How did it coexist with the traditionalism of Old Believer denominations? By developing tendencies of Russian Orthodox society of the 16-17th C. in new social and economic environment and under the influence of prosecutions the Old Believers in the late 17th – early 18th C. created new confessional values. A new type of religiousness and of personality emerged an active worldview and a high level of responsibility. Then, in the state of eschatological stress, the Old Believers sanctified oversufficient labor as edifying and overcame traditional dislike for entrepreneurship and ownership of property. In the early 19th century the concept of Business as Case was formed. For the sake of Business the Old Believers forewent the prohibition on innovation in the organizational and technical sphere while keeping it in place for their everyday lives. The fusion of innovation and tradition called to life the non-etatist modernization of whole sectors of the Russian economy.
A choice between Russian Non-Black Earth and Virgin Soil regions in the context of agricultural development of the Soviet Union was discussing virtually during the whole post-war period. The controversy dealing with the regional priorities assumed a sharp political character and demonstrated the traditional perception of center and periphery of the country. New sources - memoirs and archival materials, enable better understanding of the decision-making.
n system of confessional and economic values, institutes and installations a staroveriya synthesis of traditions of an orthodox civilization and post-traditional society was carried out. Mentality of Old Belief owners and economic ethic showed basic possibility of development of society out of the western model of a property perception, historical reality of modernization on the basis of the Russian orthodox values developing in Old Belief and deformed in the Russian society in national scales by transformations of Peter I and his followers.
The collection of articles covers a perspective of history of Russian entrepreneurship. The main subject of articles - factors of formation of ideas of property and business in Russia XVII-XX centuries.
The scientific almanac contains articles on various problems of history of Old Belief. In articles political, economic problems of history of Old belief, and also evolution of culture of Old Belief community are analyzed. The almanac includes historiographic reviews and information on scientific actions.
The first business interest associations in Russia in 19th c. aroused on Old Belief confessional base and gained high economic effectiveness. Old Believers communities coordinated economic activities of hundreds and thousand the large and small enterprises belonging formally to their members. All three sectors of entrepreneurs, managers and workers formed this mix association. Members of association acted in the industry, trade, but also in agriculture. Top management of such associations was carried out by the largest businessmen making the Council of trustees accountable to a community. Confessional links were used as a network to support goods flow. The whole branches was organized as a common network where businesses of the Old Believers had differentiation in their functions / with some of them purchasing raw materials, others processing them, and still others engaging in retail and wholesale trade. All of the components of this network were under control of the Old Believer merchants of the same denomination. At the initial stage of the industrialization business associations of the Old Believers played an important part in organizational, economic and technical modernization of Russia’s trade and industry sectors.