Опросник проактивного копинга: адаптация на неклинической выборке и прогностические возможности
The article presents the results of the Russian-language adaptation of the proactive copying questionnaire. The study involved 405 Russian-speaking respondents (age from 18 to 63 years, M = 20,5 , SD = 6,97). Based on the analysis of scales and confirmatory factor analysis, the full version of the questionnaire on the Russian-language sample showed unsatisfactory psychometric indicators. A short version of the questionnaire is proposed, which corresponds well to empirical data. Based on the regression analysis, proactive coping strategies were identified. These strategies are predictors of high life satisfaction. The greatest contribution to the level of satisfaction with life is the search for emotional support and proactive copying. On the basis of structural modeling, the relationships of coping strategies, positive and negative emotions and life satisfaction were studied. The results show that the predictors of life satisfaction are positive emotions and a person's confidence that he will successfully solve a difficult life situation.
We examined relations of 10 personal values to life satisfaction (LS) and depressive affect (DEP) in representative samples from 32/25 countries (N = 121 495). We tested hypotheses both for direct relations and cross-level moderation of relations by Cultural Egalitarianism. We based hypotheses on the growth versus self-protection orientation and person-focus versus social-focus motivations that underlie values. As predicted, openness to change values (growth/person) correlated positively with subjective well-being (SWB: higher LS, lower DEP) and conservation values (self-protection/social) correlated negatively with SWB. The combination of underlying motivations also explained more complex direct relations of self-transcendence and self-enhancement values with SWB. We combined an analysis of the environmental context in societies low versus high in Cultural Egalitarianism with the implications of pursuing person-focused versus social-focused values to predict how Cultural Egalitarianism moderates value–SWB relations. As predicted, under low versus high Cultural Egalitarianism, (i) openness to change values related more positively to SWB, (ii) conservation values more negatively, (iii) self-enhancement values less negatively and (iv) self-transcendence values less positively. Culture moderated value–SWB relations more weakly for DEP than for LS. Culture moderated value–LS relations more strongly than the socio-economic context did. This study demonstrates how the cultural context shapes individual-level associations between values and SWB.
Summarizing the results of different researches on intercultural interaction, we can state that people feel tension in intercultural contacts when they perceive the situation as threatening their well-being. There are also many empirical evidences that people belonging to different cultures understand well-being in different ways. This understanding depends also on social, economic and other factors. Thereby it is important to study general relationships of subjective well-being and intercultural tolerance and cultural specifics of these relationships. Objectives of the empirical study was to analyze the satisfaction with life as an important factor of cross-cultural interaction; to reveal cultural specifics of modern representations of subjective well-being, and interrelations of the styles of intercultural interaction with subjective well-being in different cultures. Methods: Scales of: Psychological well-being (Ryff), Life Satisfaction (Neugarten, Havighurst, & Tobin), Subjective Happiness (Lyubomirsky & Lepper), General Communicative Tolerance (Boiko) and Ethnic Identity Types (Soldatova, Ryzhova), Student’s T-test, Spearman's rank correlation. Sample: 330 persons (18-55 years old) of 10 different nations and 5 religions. By the time of the survey, all the participants had lived in Russia for some (not less than 3) years, all of them lived in some biggest Russian cities.Results: It was discovered, that people’s satisfaction with their lives directly relates to general and intercultural tolerance. People, more satisfied with their lives, are usually better control their negative emotions, adapt to changing situations, forgive others’ mistakes. Such people admit their and others’ ethnicity and more rarely exhibit extremism in inter-ethnic relations, although they often avoid contact with other ethnic groups. Cross-cultural differences in well-being were revealed among residents of modern Russian big cities. In particular, people belonging to the Jewish religion, were significantly more satisfied with their lives than all the others were. People brought up in the Orthodox culture, were the least satisfied. In many subjective well-being indicators, representatives of the Buddhist and Muslim cultures showed quite good results. Different statistically significant connections between subjective well-being and tolerance were revealed in cultural subgroups. For example, for people belonging to Jewish religion, general tolerance is associated mostly with meaningfulness of life and openness to the world; and ethnic tolerance is associated to environmental mastery and personal growth. For Buddhists meaningfulness of life positively correlates with general and ethnic tolerance, and personal growth correlates only with ethnic tolerance. Muslims showed the similar results, but besides – the correlations of both types of tolerance with ppurposefulness and overall mood tone. For Orthodox Christians, both types of tolerance is mostly related to positive relations with others and overall level of subjective well-being. Conclusions: the life satisfaction and subjective well-being are important factors of intercultural interactions. There are common and culturally specific mechanisms of these factors interaction. In psychological support of cross-cultural interaction it is important to take into consideration cultural differences in well-being understanding and its relations with general and intercultural tolerance.
Increase welfare and the fight against the informal employment are the equivalent tasks for the state policy. But is there a contradiction in these goals? Does the gray market decrease social tensions? Subjective well-being can be considered to answer this question. This paper discusses the relation between unregistered employment and life satisfaction.
The goal of the research was investigating the personality features of coping behaviour in family conflicts. The results of the empirical research (297 respondents) are given in this article. Classification of the four personality types showing various features of coping behaviour in a situation of family conflicts – dependent, steady, negative, and diffuse, was the result of the research. The research results allow us to suggest that hardiness level has become the main factor in the choice of coping strategies in a situation of family conflicts.
The objectives of the study were to reveal cultural specifics of modern life values and subjective well-being, individual and cultural values interrelations, life values and subjective well-being correlations at Russian residents, belonging to different religions. The main methods were Scales of: Value Orientations Actual Structure (Bubnova), Psychological well-being (Ryff), Life Satisfaction (Neugarten, Havighurst, & Tobin), Subjective Happiness (Lyubomirsky & Lepper), Student’s T-test, Spearman's rank correlation. The sample consisted of 330 persons (18-55 years old) of 10 different nations and 5 religions. By the time of the survey all the participants had lived in Russia for some (not less than 3) years. For each studied religious groups their dominant life values were revealed. It was discovered, that people of different cultures associate their well-being and lives satisfaction with different life values. However, in general, life satisfaction correlates with those values, which are less important for certain culture. Perhaps, persons, oriented on traditional and culturally important values are less happy than those, who are oriented for their individual ones. May be in assessing realization of individual values people use their own criteria, which are not as strict as criteria of common cultural values’ realization. The results of this study allow us to draw the following conclusions. Significant cross-cultural differences in life-values and subjective well-being have their sources in religious attitudes and settings. People of different cultures associate their well-being and lives satisfaction with different values. Generally, well-being and life satisfaction are directly related to the values, less important in certain culture.
This article analyzes life satisfaction in Russia’s population over the last two decades, as well as its determinants, based on OECD methodology and data from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey of the Higher School of Economics (RLMS-HSE). It shows that in Russia, which during its transformational period went through each phase of the business cycle with high oscillation amplitude, life satisfaction is more closely connected to the main economic indicators than in countries that have not experienced similar economic and social shocks. The way life satisfaction and its main determinants are correlated in Russia is similar to what we see in several other countries, but the specific values and forms of these connections depend on the particular motions of the economic cycle in any given country, as well as the previous path (model) of its development.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.