Resonant Energy Transfer Between Degrees of Freedom in a Dusty Plasma System
Dust particles under certain conditions can acquire kinetic energy of the order of 10 eV and higher, far above the temperature of gas and temperatures of ions and electrons in the discharge. Furthermore, significant difference of mean horizontal and vertical energy is observed. Such difference can be explained by the energy transfer between degrees of freedom of a dusty plasma system. The proposed mechanism of energy transfer between vertical and horizontal motion is based on parametric resonance. A system of equations describing dust particles' motion with account of dust particle charge fluctuations and features of the discharge near-electrode layer is formulated. Molecular dynamics simulations of dust particles' system are performed. Dependences of magnitude of transferred energy and horizontal energy growth rate on system parameters are obtained.
Wave processes occurring under the interaction of the Earth's magnetosphere with dusty plasma near the lunar surface are studied. Ion-acoustic waves are shown to be excited in some regions of the magnetosphere due to the development of a linear hydrodynamic instability. This results in the excitation of ion-acoustic turbulence in these regions. Dust-acoustic waves are demonstrated to be generated due to the development of linear kinetic instability in the entire region of magnetotail interaction with dusty plasma near the Moon. Correspondingly, dust-acoustic turbulence can be excited in the entire region of the interaction of the Earth's magnetosphere with dusty plasma near the lunar surface. We discuss magnetic reconnection processes, which are related to the development of plasma turbulence at the Moon.
The self-consistency and basic openness of dusty plasma, charge fluctuations, high dissipation and other features of dusty plasma system lead to the appearance of a number of unusual and unique properties of dusty plasma. “Anomalous” heating of dusty particles, anisotropy of temperatures and other features, parametric resonance, charge fluctuations and interaction potential are among these unique properties. Study is based on analytical approach and numerical simulation. Mechanisms of “anomalous” heating and energy transfer are proposed. Influence of charge fluctuations on the system properties is discussed. The self-consistent, many-particle, fluctuation and anisotropic interparticle interaction potential is studied for a significant range of gas temperature. These properties are interconnected and necessary for a full description of dusty plasmas physics.
A theory is developed which describes the processes of dust particle charging in the situation when dust particles are subjected to the action of a beam of electrons. It is shown that in this situation it is necessary to consider the electron field emission in addition to the influence of the electron beam on the dust particle. We calculate the current of the electron field emission modified by the Schottky effect and find the steady-state dust particle charge. We show that in the situation considered the electrostatic energy of the dust particle is much smaller than the electron energy in the beam.
The Callovo-Oxfordian clay formation (COx) is the potential host rock for long term nuclear waste repository in France. The clayey component of COx consists mostly of illite, smectite and interstratified illite/smectite (I/S) clay minerals. We performed a series of molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulations in order to quantify the molecular scale mechanisms responsible for the adsorption and transport of ions at the hydrated surfaces of illite, smectite, and I/S clays. New structural models of illite, smectite, and I/S allowed us to identify several structurally different adsorption sites at the basal surfaces of all three clay substrates. Adsorption free energy profiles above each individual adsorption site on each clay surface for a wide range of metal cations were then calculated and the metal sorption properties for the three clay surfaces are compared in terms of the preferable sorption sites and their surface distributions, most stable adsorption distances, and free energies of adsorption. The resulting equilibrium constants for surface adsorption and ion exchange were calculated and found in general agreement with available literature data. The observed discrepancies between the exchange energies obtained in the current MD simulations and the values obtained through the interpretation of recent X-ray reflectivity measurements can be attributed to the differences in the description of the exchange reaction equilibria between the experimental conditions and the simplified conditions of our simulations.
The dynamics of a two-component Davydov-Scott (DS) soliton with a small mismatch of the initial location or velocity of the high-frequency (HF) component was investigated within the framework of the Zakharov-type system of two coupled equations for the HF and low-frequency (LF) fields. In this system, the HF field is described by the linear Schrödinger equation with the potential generated by the LF component varying in time and space. The LF component in this system is described by the Korteweg-de Vries equation with a term of quadratic influence of the HF field on the LF field. The frequency of the DS soliton`s component oscillation was found analytically using the balance equation. The perturbed DS soliton was shown to be stable. The analytical results were confirmed by numerical simulations.
Radiation conditions are described for various space regions, radiation-induced effects in spacecraft materials and equipment components are considered and information on theoretical, computational, and experimental methods for studying radiation effects are presented. The peculiarities of radiation effects on nanostructures and some problems related to modeling and radiation testing of such structures are considered.
This volume presents new results in the study and optimization of information transmission models in telecommunication networks using different approaches, mainly based on theiries of queueing systems and queueing networks .
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.