Парадоксы «Лекции об этике» Л. Витгенштейна
The article is the first in Russian-speaking literature analysis of Wittgenstein’s "Lecture about ethics" (1929) sustained in a format of polemic with the long-held interpretations of Wittgenstein’s thought. The subject of discussion of these treatments is Wittgenstein's position concerning the status of the highest (ethical) meanings and values. In the article it is shown that Wittgenstein's statements have not a theoretical, but methodical character: Wittgenstein does not claim and does not deny existence of "the highest", he creates the optics in which something is directly detected, which is irreducible to the "trivial" contexts. This method, being mastered, can have the broadest application, allowing to trace the uncommon axiological and semantic components in all cases of their manifestation: in philosophical doctrines, in literature, in political debates, in own experiences, etc. In the last part of article it is shown how Wittgenstein's method discloses the inadequacy of the program of positivism: criticizing the "naive" absolutism of pre-scientific forms of culture (myth, religion, ethics, metaphysics), positivism does not recognize the uncommon contents inherent in these forms and therefore positivism finds it possible to reduce these forms just to the facts, leveling, thereby, their genuine meaning.