Одобрение групповой иерархии: русскоязычная версия шкалы для измерения ориентации на социальное доминирование
The article describes the Russian version of Social Dominance Orientation Scale. The structure, reliability and validity of three variants of the scale were studied: scale for measurement of general social dominance (Study 1), of dominance in interethnic (Study 2) and international (Study 3) relationships. Two thousand thirty five respondents took part in the studies (N1 = 512, N2 = 204, N3 = 1319). They filled in full versions of the scales, which comprised 16 items. Respondents were to agree or disagree with each statement on a 7-score scale (from 1 — "completely disagree" to 7 — "completely agree"). Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that the model, where items formed 2 closely interrelated sub-factors, better fitted the data, than models, where all items were summed in one scale. Moreover, it was found that models, which comprised 10 items, better fitted the data, than models with 16 items (Study 1: x 2 = 121.737*, CFI = 0.967, RMSEA = 0.050; Study 2: x 2 = 42.411, CFI=0.988, RMSEA =0.035; Study 3: x 2 = 134.225, CFI = 0.967, RMSEA = 0.047). Further analysis demonstrated that 10-items models have good indices of configural validity In whole, the acquired results show that the short versions of the Social Dominance Orientation Scales correspond to the theoretical model, are reliable, valid and can be used in empirical research.
Social beliefs are notions about the nature of other people, their behavior, and the way one should respond to their actions. Social beliefs include beliefs in dangerous world (a view of society as chaotic, unpredictable, and aggressive) and jungle world (a view of other people as lying and manipulative agents trying to “win against” one). This paper presents the results of a study that aimed to check the structural validity of Russian versions of two scales by J. Duckitt, measuring beliefs in dangerous and jungle world. The participants were students of universities from Moscow and Kazan region, as well as employees of commercial organizations (N = 1938, mean age 20.2). The respondents completed a 12-item Russian version of dangerous world belief scale and a 20-item Russian version of jungle world belief scale. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis were used to investigate the structure. For the dangerous world belief scale, a secondorder order factor model (with two first-order factors) for the full questionnaire showed the best fit. For the jungle world beliefs scale, a second-order factor model (also with two first-order factors) was developed for a subset of 12 items. The authors discuss the compatibility of social beliefs scales with Russian cultural context.
This study aims to investigate the relationship between social dominance orientation (SDO) and subjective well-being among Chinese adolescents (N = 4246), and to examine the mediating role of prosocial behaviour in this relationship. The structural equation model’s results showed that SDO was negatively associated with prosocial behaviour and subjective well-being, that prosocial behaviour was positively associated with subjective well-being, and also that (low) prosocial behaviour partially mediated the negative relationship between SDO and subjective well-being. Multi-group analyses showed that the mediation model was generally similar between boys and girls, but that the negative relationship between SDO and prosocial behaviour was somewhat stronger among girls than boys. This study sheds light on how SDO is associated with positive outcomes among Chinese adolescents and highlights the mediating role of prosocial behaviour as an underlying mechanism between SDO and subjective well-being. Future studies are needed to further discover the role of culture values in the association between SDO and subjective well-being
The article describes the developing a short version of the dual process model scales by J. Duckitt that allow getting an integrated exploratory approach for the assessment of authoritarianism. This area of research is not widespread in Russia in contrast to foreign social psychology. Unfortunately, there are only a few studies in Russia that advance our understanding of the indicated problems, and these few studies likely put more questions than give answers. It can be partly explained by the lack of appropriate available, reliable and valid measures in Russian. Dual process model for the study of authoritarianism offers the scales designed to measure: (1) right-wing authoritarianism that reflects the motivation and attitudes to maintain and preservation of the social cohesion, order, stability, and collective security; (2) social dominance orientation that reflects the motivation and attitudes to maintain and preservation of the dominance and superiority; (3) dangerous worldview that reflects views of the social world as the dangerous and threatening; and (4) competitive worldview that reflects views of the social world as the competitive and ferocious. The data for the analysis were collected in the survey of 241 participants, mostly residents of Moscow (Central Federal District) and Ulyanovsk (Volga Federal District). Using confirmatory factor analysis the four models containing the different number of dimensions of the short version of the dual process model scales were tested. The short version of scales was successfully compiled, the measures can be considered a reliable and valid measure to study of authoritarianism in Russia.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.