Sensitivity and Resolution of a Heterodyne Receiver Based on the NbN HEB Mixer with a Quantum-Cascade Laser as a Local Oscillator
Interest in research in the terahertz range is driven by a great number of various applications, where terahertz instruments may play a leading role. To name just a few, such applications include study of the cosmic microwave background radiation and the distribution of the dark matter, medicine, navigation, fire alarm, security systems and environmental monitoring. The paper discusses the possibility of using a receiver based on the hot-electron effect in superconducting films as an imaging system. We present the results of the noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD) measurements performed with a hot-electron bolometer mixer made from a thin superconducting film. The receiver with a noise temperature of ~ 3800 K at a local oscillator frequency of 300 GHz a bandwidth of 500 MHz and an integration time of 1 s has offered an NETD of 0.5 K. We have also developed a technique that enabled us to reduce the contribution of the mixer gain fluctuations to the overall system instability. As of this writing, the above value of the NETD is the lowest value offered for this type of receiver, which indicates the possibility to use such receivers in real-time imaging systems. The technique offered in the paper for achieving the limiting value of the NETD offers an alternative to the phase-locking scheme.
The dynamics of a two-component Davydov-Scott (DS) soliton with a small mismatch of the initial location or velocity of the high-frequency (HF) component was investigated within the framework of the Zakharov-type system of two coupled equations for the HF and low-frequency (LF) fields. In this system, the HF field is described by the linear Schrödinger equation with the potential generated by the LF component varying in time and space. The LF component in this system is described by the Korteweg-de Vries equation with a term of quadratic influence of the HF field on the LF field. The frequency of the DS soliton`s component oscillation was found analytically using the balance equation. The perturbed DS soliton was shown to be stable. The analytical results were confirmed by numerical simulations.
Radiation conditions are described for various space regions, radiation-induced effects in spacecraft materials and equipment components are considered and information on theoretical, computational, and experimental methods for studying radiation effects are presented. The peculiarities of radiation effects on nanostructures and some problems related to modeling and radiation testing of such structures are considered.
This volume presents new results in the study and optimization of information transmission models in telecommunication networks using different approaches, mainly based on theiries of queueing systems and queueing networks .
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.