Формирование и особенности промышленной системы Японии в 1870–1880 гг.
Japan was the first Asian country to follow West Europe and the United States in commencing industrial development. In addition, Japan managed to implement an industrial system in a short period and reached significant results by the beginning of the 1890s. Therefore, it can be argued that the reformation of Japan in the first half of the Meiji period (1870–1880s) is one distinct historical example of technological modernization and transition to a new economic model. This article analyses the interconnection of factors that enabled the country to overcome one of the most profound crises in its history. A key aspect of Japan’s rapid and successful transition from an agricultural economy to an industrial economy was the Meiji government’s approach. During these years, the Meiji government created necessary conditions that assisted in accelerating industrial development. The Meiji government’s approach to modernizing the economy can be characterized as pragmatic. This provided the foundation for selecting suitable foreign concepts that were adapted by taking into consideration Japanese cultural and historical circumstances. This article begins with an analysis of the cultural and economic heritage of the Tokugawa period (1603-1868), which formed a special ethical environment and socio-economic conditions for the country’s modernization in the Meiji period (1868–1912). Further features of the formation of the Japanese industrial system in the 1870s and 1880s are discussed, as well as the problem of transition from strict state regulation to expanding private initiative. The conclusion raises the question of the Asian market impact on the process of Japanese industrialization.