Формирование и особенности промышленной системы Японии в 1870–1880 гг.
Japan was the first Asian country to follow West Europe and the United States in commencing industrial development. In addition, Japan managed to implement an industrial system in a short period and reached significant results by the beginning of the 1890s. Therefore, it can be argued that the reformation of Japan in the first half of the Meiji period (1870–1880s) is one distinct historical example of technological modernization and transition to a new economic model. This article analyses the interconnection of factors that enabled the country to overcome one of the most profound crises in its history. A key aspect of Japan’s rapid and successful transition from an agricultural economy to an industrial economy was the Meiji government’s approach. During these years, the Meiji government created necessary conditions that assisted in accelerating industrial development. The Meiji government’s approach to modernizing the economy can be characterized as pragmatic. This provided the foundation for selecting suitable foreign concepts that were adapted by taking into consideration Japanese cultural and historical circumstances. This article begins with an analysis of the cultural and economic heritage of the Tokugawa period (1603-1868), which formed a special ethical environment and socio-economic conditions for the country’s modernization in the Meiji period (1868–1912). Further features of the formation of the Japanese industrial system in the 1870s and 1880s are discussed, as well as the problem of transition from strict state regulation to expanding private initiative. The conclusion raises the question of the Asian market impact on the process of Japanese industrialization.
The article is devoted to analysis of discursive practices of public representation and discussion of the political course of “modernization” announced by president Dmitry Medvedev. It is focused at interpretations of the idea of modernization by the leading Russian politicians as well as at the role of the notions about collective past, present and future in its ideological justification and contestation.
The chapter focuses on one of the ways to communicate with the sacred popular among contemporary Russian Orthodox believers – written appealing to the saints (letters and notes). Although not happy at all about this habit, the Church managers allow to publish these letters in the parish newspapers and web-sites and in other church mass-media. Analysis of publications of the letters addressed to Saint Xenia of Petersburg proves that the Church publishes them as a part of its advertising campaign targeted on those people who prefer irregular religiosity (pilgrimages, letters to the saint, etc) to traditional regular parish life. The chapter develops Peter Berger’s metaphor of religious market.
Among key problems of strategic development of the Russian Federation – a gain of the advanced positions in a global competition, an exit on standards of a life of the developed countries. Methods of achievement of the proclaimed priorities among which predominate an emphasis on realisation of innovations and optimisation of use of regional and human potentials are defined also. It means also working out of essentially new domestic industrial policy which main objective – stimulation of transition of a national economy on the way of development allowing a science and hi-tech sectors of the industry to become by the locomotive of economic growth, to provide adequate conditions for development for industrial sector of economy. Many questions concerning a theme of research carried out in the given collection, successfully dare in the European countries. Therefore studying a positive European experience important for decrease in vulnerability of domestic economy in the face of many global problems. These problems demand today adequate reactions at level of an industrial policy, start of new industrial strategy. In this work it is a lot of the specific proposals directed on the further development of the Russian industry. Authors have formulated both new tactical and strategic ideas, not ordinary decisions for achievement of leadership in the field in the future.
The article is concerned with results of content analysis of textbooks for high school in the area of social and human sciences. The author uses the typology of values introduced by S. Schwartz which consists of two value axes — “conservation — openness to change” and “selfassertion — caring about people and nature” — and describes values that underlie each subject area and then compares these values with results of mass surveys of the values of Russians.
Nature abhors a "vacuum" - the new power elite arrives at the time of major social and political transformations and endeavours to shore up its position within the country and obtain support from outside. New power groups, which are active at times of revolution and who replace, push aside or even depose the old elites and impose their own control over the state machine and position themselves as new power elite.There are themselves not immune to social transformation, especially in the first decades of coming to their new commanding role. Unless its claims are given legitimacy it is unable to implement its positive programme, which it immediately claims as the national programme. Every country "acquires" a new functioning elite - political, financial and intellectual - from revolution or a change of regime. The old elite may lose control and depart or upon luck may merge into a new combination of social strata of particular country. We also believe that the composition and the structure of elites is the country-specific and reflect one’s country history.
This book seeks to “re-think democracy.” Over the past years, there has been a tendency in the global policy community and, even more widely, in the world’s media, to focus on democracy as the “gold standard” by which all things political are measured. This book re-examines democracy in Russia and in the world more generally, as idea, desired ideal, and practice. A major issue for Russia is whether the modernization of Russia might not prosper better by Russia focusing directly on modernization and not worrying too much about democracy. This book explores a wide range of aspects of this important question. It discusses how the debate is conducted in Russia; outlines how Russians contrast their own experiences, unfavourably, with the experience of China, where reform and modernization have been pursued with great success, with no concern for democracy; and concludes by assessing how the debate in Russia is likely to be resolved.
Considering specifi city of modernization processes in Russia, caused both by internal problems and Russias place in global economy, the author brings an attention to the question of features of standard-values system of Russian reformers. Results of the analysis of 12 values-blocks forming a basis of the variety of the standard-valuable systems of Russians are given.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.