How to mix? Spatial configurations, modes of production and resident perceptions of mixed tenure neighbourhoods
Reviews of mixed tenure research have highlighted the lack of attention given to the processes of delivering mix. This research investigates the relationship between the spatial configuration of tenures produced within neighbourhoods, and residents’ views on the benefits and drawbacks of mixed tenure and their reported social interactions within and across tenures. Further, we consider how these effects are bound up with the particular contexts and development histories, or ‘modes of production’, of mixed tenure estates. Two peripheral estates and one inner city estate converted to mixed tenure over the past 10–20 years in Glasgow were examined through qualitative research with 37 residents in 7 neighbourhoods. The majority of respondents were positive about mixed tenure, though owners were more likely to qualify their support. Residents living in spatially integrated neighbourhoods were the most positive overall, and those in segregated neighbourhoods the least so. More positive views and accounts of mixed tenure were also most common on the estate which had been entirely redeveloped through a master-planning process.
The paper continues analysis of the results of panel study in Belgorod region’s rural areas conducted in 2000 and 2013. Both papers are integrated in institutional theoretical and methodological approach to the scientific analysis of social transformations. We underline the conceptualization of social institute as a system of social actors’ interactions. This system provides the sustained self-perpetuating satisfaction of the most important needs and interests of the actors. We differentiate institute as a social phenomenon, superindividual in its nature, from institutionalization as a process providing sustainability of social interactions. We give particular attention to the fact that human behavior is based on the institutionally determined logic thus being shaped by institutional demands, compelled, instead of voluntary, motives, and control. The basic condition of institutes’ efficient functioning is their guaranteed ability to enforce desirable behaviors. Taken together, social institutes regulate basic interactions in the most important spheres of life such as exchange and distribution of economic resources as well as power relations thus composing social organization of the society as a whole. The purpose of this paper is to take a more nuanced view of social institutions while highlighting inconsistencies and contradictions in the process of their change. An empirical observation of the transitional institutions’ development is presented. It is argued that these institutions are internally inconsistent and contradictory. Transitional institutions’ inconsistencies are manifested, first, in oppositions between “old” (traditionalistic and paternalistic) and “new” (competitive and achievement-oriented) social practices. Second, confrontation between “positive” (independence and personal responsibility) and “negative” (moral and legal nihilism) social norms underlying these practices is observed. We conclude by suggesting a theoretical model and propositions that will address unanswered questions and should provide a more complete understanding of transformative social institutions and their development.
Article is devoted to the study of terminology of social and labour relations in terms of sociological science. The author indicates the relevance of the research problem and discussed in detail the definitions, terms and controversial questions about: 1) social relations and social interactions; 2) labour and socio-labour relations; 3) the subjects of social and labour relations and labour market infrastructure. To the author's vision solution to the identified problems. In particular, the author distinguishes three main approaches existing in the domestic literature to the definition of «labour relations » and «social and labour relations». The author's model of modern subjects of social and labour relations is presented in the article.
The article deals with the theme of the semantic and functional continuity of the current solidarity practices and the Soviet-era experience (corporate volunteering and Soviet patronage as a particular case). The work aims to identify sociological parameters for comparing these practices. The article provides an analysis of the functions, attributed meanings and motivation of participants in these two types of social activity. The empirical basis for studying patronage includes published memoirs, ideological and historical texts, and interviews with former participants in patronage activities. The aspects of corporate volunteering that were necessary for comparison with patronage were studied on the materials of an investigation carried out under the guidance of Ivan Klimov. The results of the analysis suggest that some characteristics of patronage and corporate volunteering are very similar (in point of voluntary and free labour), whereas some other characteristics are substantially diff erent. Our attempt to compare patronage and corporate volunteering makes it possible to draw two groups of conclusions. The fi rst group concerns practical problems of the functioning of public institutions in contemporary Russia. In our opinion, the hot topic here is the problematization of socio-cultural and socio-institutional mechanisms of social interactions “in the vertical direction”: between more or less resource-based social groups and individuals. The second groups comprises methodological conclusions regarding the themes and aspects of the analysis of the contemporary forms of solidarity that are outside the scope of interest of contemporary researchers studying not only volunteering, but also other forms of social life which have replaced those that existed in the past. Prospects for advancing the theme are seen in the development of topics related to the analysis of the mechanisms of patronage and volunteer activities and the peculiarities of interaction between social subjects in the framework of the former and existing practices. In the context of comparative analysis we deem it promising to search for answers to questions about the peculiarities of individual and collective participation in volunteer activities; about event and participation volunteering; about justification of volunteer activities; about the ethical basis of volunteering. This work implies the need for expanding the research base and raising new methodological and methodical issues.
The results of research of different areas of personality of homeless men: values, life attitudes, activity, homelessness area is presents. The data indicate the presence of a number of characteristics inherent in varying degrees all homeless people. The data obtained can be used to build an effective program of psychological re-socialization of homeless people.
In 2006, Russia amended its competition law and added the concepts of ‘collective dominance’ and its abuse. This was seen as an attempt to address the common problem of ‘conscious parallelism’ among firms in concentrated industries. Critics feared that the enforcement of this provision would become tantamount to government regulation of prices. In this paper we examine the enforcement experience to date, looking especially closely at sanctions imposed on firms in the oil industry. Some difficulties and complications experienced in enforcement are analysed, and some alternative strategies for addressing anticompetitive behaviour in concentrated industries discussed.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.