Изменение потребительского поведения пенсионеров в условиях кризиса 2013–2016 гг
The analysis of consumer behavior of pensioners is carried out on the RLMS-HSE data for 2013-2016. The subject of the study is households of different socio-demographic types, which include pensioners. The study uses household typologies that take into account their age and employment status. In the period from 2013 to 2016, changes in consumer behavior of households are revealed depending on the status of employment of pensioners and the presence of other persons in the household. The analysis of consumer expenditures by types of households includes: products for domestic meals, meals outside the house, alcoholic beverages, non-food products, services. In the analyzed period, the share of expenditures for food and services increases in households. And the share of expenditures for non-food products decreased. Differences in consumer spending in households consisting of pensioners are revealed. The greatest differences in the structure of expenditure on food are observed between households with working pensioners and non-working pensioners. Non-working single pensioners are forced to save on the most important food products. We can say that the structure of consumer spending of households of pensioners varies depending on their status in the labor market. The article also highlights the importance of labor activity of elderly people. Among them, age groups 55-59 and 60-64 years old, at the expense of working pensioners, were better adapted to the crisis conditions.
This article presents a simple condition for optimal coordination of social security policies in the union of two open economies employing different production functions and within which capital and labour are fully mobile. We find that if both countries run fully funded pension schemes, the allocation of mobile production factors may not be optimal when the countries have different technologies. To remove this distortion, at least one country must run a pay-as-you-go pension scheme. Policy coordination which takes technological differences into account allows for the removal of static inefficiencies, maximizing the welfare of the agents in the steady state.
Against the background of change in higher education public subsidy principles and of intensifying differentiation between higher education institutions, it is now becoming ever more urgent to study dynamics of public demand for higher education under conditions of population decline and decrease in families capacity to pay. The article considers current Educational Policies Theoretical and Applied Research318 АННОТАцИИ СТАТЕй НА АНГЛИйСКОМ ЯЗыКЕ trends in public demand and how they influence financial security and restructuring processes in the Russian higher education system. The study enabled to highlight transformation of the professional education market, its transition from an expanding phase to a contracting one. Changes in the professional education market develop nowadays under the influence of differently directed trends that are set by such externalities in terms of education as population decline, decrease in consumers capacity to pay, employer dissatisfaction with education quality and weakening of students motivation to continue their education. In this context the basic vector for development consistently concerns structure optimization, unification of educational institutions of different levels, diversification of funding sources and change in higher education management system.
For a long period of time, the sphere of higher education in Russia was an extensively growing market which satisfied public demand and in addition to government funding attracted extra funds from families and private funding sources. However, the financial crisis, demographic recession, and rising instability of family incomes had a profound effect on the market of educational services. These processes have impacted the quentially-linked main stages of the educational system, which have directly led to changes in the structural components of the educational market and its transition to a shrinking market. Based on the recent researches, the paper discusses these new characteristics of the education market. Finding solutions to overcome the deficiencies of the existing vocational training system to ensure the competitiveness of graduates in the labor market, as well as the assessment of trends in social demand for higher education in Russia, are pertinent topics for this research reflecting the situation of emergence from a real crisis.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.