This paper deals with the capabilities of managing the engagement of participants in the crowdsourcing projects. The essence of crowdsourcing has been analyzed. The contents of the basic stages of realization of crowdsourcing, with emphasis on the importance of engaging participants in the crowdsourcing activities on each stage are described. Different aspects of such projects, increasing or reducing the quality of joint activity of participants, are highlighted.
The article considers experience of using crowdsourcing on the example of Sberbank of Russia - company which first used this technology to identify the prospects of its development, with more than 100 thousand interested participating persons in the project. Currently this commercial Bank organizes crowdsourcing of regulatory documents on a permanent basis involving 16 thousand employees. Attracting and retaining such a large number of participants requires management of their engagement. Having analyzed the concept of "engagement ", the author gives the definition of "engagement of participants in crowdsourcing activity"; outlines dedicated behavioral indicators of engagement of participants in crowdsourcing projects. Analyses have been given to the contents key scientific works devoted to motivation of participants in crowdsourcing activities.
Considering the scarcity of scientific developments in the given field, the paper considers possible ways to strengthening the engagement, based on the Gallup Institute conception of personnel engagement (emphasizing the specifics of crowdsourcing activity).
The indicators of engagement used in the conception, have been adapted for using in crowdsourcing activities.
The analysis of consumer behavior of pensioners is carried out on the RLMS-HSE data for 2013-2016. The subject of the study is households of different socio-demographic types, which include pensioners. The study uses household typologies that take into account their age and employment status. In the period from 2013 to 2016, changes in consumer behavior of households are revealed depending on the status of employment of pensioners and the presence of other persons in the household. The analysis of consumer expenditures by types of households includes: products for domestic meals, meals outside the house, alcoholic beverages, non-food products, services. In the analyzed period, the share of expenditures for food and services increases in households. And the share of expenditures for non-food products decreased. Differences in consumer spending in households consisting of pensioners are revealed. The greatest differences in the structure of expenditure on food are observed between households with working pensioners and non-working pensioners. Non-working single pensioners are forced to save on the most important food products. We can say that the structure of consumer spending of households of pensioners varies depending on their status in the labor market. The article also highlights the importance of labor activity of elderly people. Among them, age groups 55-59 and 60-64 years old, at the expense of working pensioners, were better adapted to the crisis conditions.
In the article, the essence of outsourcing as a new form of labor relations in comparison with the traditional form of interaction of the labor subjects is considered. The advantages and disadvantages of this form of labor relations are given. Outsourcing is not only a way to output outside the organizational structure of the organization providing units, but a special form of labor relationship when the client passes by the contract the duty to perform certain labor functions to third-party organizations, which will be implemented by its employees of the standards set by the customer. Thus, an employee who has concluded an employment contract with one organization, in fact being used by another employer, which imposes certain features on the process of implementation of such employment. Given conducted assessment of the outsourcing prospects in domestic organizations, to identify the constraints that hinder the active introduction of outsourcing in practice, we conducted a sociological study of labor subjects’ attitude to the possibilities of using the outsourcing in Russian companies. The results showed that many of the investigated companies do not experienced with outsourcing, despite the fact that almost all of them are in need of such solutions. Key benefits of outsourcing were identified. Among them: the cost of its implementation for the company, the ability to simplify the control of the company to focus on the key issues of development. The main problems that hinder its development: the lack of experience of the managers, the lack of guarantees for workers (due to the fact that law does not regulate outsourcing). Most of the hypotheses put forward in the study confirmed. According to the results of the study, we have identified recommendations, which implementation will accelerate the process of institutionalization of outsourcing as a new form of labor relations.
The paper attempts to examine methodological basis of institutional design of labor relations. The paper describes the contents of new forms of labor relations, marked differences from traditional forms. The essence of institutional design, the main stages of this process are described. Issues that must be answered in the course of institutional design of new forms of labor relations are highlighted. The approaches to the evaluation of the effectiveness of institutions are studied. Author's vision of evaluating the effectiveness of the labor relations Institute is offered. The algorithm of the institutional design of the new form of labor relations is described. Restraining forces among which were institutional traps that may impair the quality and speed of institutional design of a new form of labor relations are studied. Recommendations for leveling their negative impact on the process of institutional design of new forms of labor relations are highlighted. The value of the state, which has a key role in the finalization of the infrastructure of the labor market in accordance with the requirements of the innovation economy are concretized. The paper shows that the efficiency of the institutionalization of new forms of labor relations is largely dependent on how the subjects of labor accept business risks and what is the size of transaction costs of their activities. A key conclusion of the work consists in the assertion that the institutionalization of new forms of labor relations will depend on how often employers will use innovative approaches to the organization of workers, how workers will be involved in the process of labor relations, what economic effect will be provided the subjects of new forms of labor in while reducing their costs.
The article addresses the importance of public participation in strategic planning procedures. It identifies goals of public participation, defines 3 groups of participation models (by degree of participation in policy decisions), as well as discusses typical methods characteristic to each model type. Based on this, the authors analyzed the public participation mechanism which is used in strategic planning in Russia by studying the sources of the codified law and open government initiatives. The authors defined and analyzed 3 levels of strategic planning in Russia, and concluded that the first (federal) level is dominant in terms of centralization of decisions, number of participants and their authority. It was determined that the currently used strategic decision making model does not systematically provide for public participation. At the same time since citizens have the right to request information from state bodies as well as the right to be involved in the policy making process, but there are no systemic federal mechanisms of participation (at the stage of developing, implementing and monitoring implementation of decisions), mechanisms which ensure that the collected opinions are taken into consideration when making decisions, as well as mechanisms for delegating functions, etc., the current model of public participation in strategic planning was classified as a symbolic participation model (oriented to citizens power models).
The article explores e-participation platforms for government strategic planning. The paper reports a study that analyzes the concepts related to public participation and presents the results of a research aimed to suggest the classification of existing electronic platforms and define best practice in terms of its parameters and features. Based on the analysis of 37 electronic platforms, which used for public participation in Russia, e-platforms classification has been suggested. The comparative analysis of defined types of the platforms showed the differences in the parameters. Based on this 27 platforms has been excluded from further research as they aimed at solving individual problems of citizens. We analyzed the parameters of other 10, which used for socio-economic planning, and define its typical profile (in terms of parameters). In order to define best-practice parameters of electronic platforms we analyzed the examples from leading countries as per international rankings for the level of e-democracy and e-participation. Having summarized the results into such platforms typical profile (in terms of parameters) we compared it to Russian platforms profile and based on that recommended 9 parameters of e-platform configuration to be used as a best practice.
There is proposed a structural and functional model of the healthcare system of the region, which allows to present in a clear and logical format any processes taking place in the regional health care system, characterizing the most common patterns of the system as a whole and being the basis for explaining its activities, reflecting the functional (the set of the objective function, management functions and support functions required to achieve the output parameters of the system – providing enhanced reproduction of human resources in the region by improving the health of the region's residents) and the structure of the system. The main functions of the regional health system and indicators for assessing the level of implementation of these functions were determined. The proposed method of the assessment of the regional health care system’ dysfunctions was tested on the example of the health care systems of the seven subjects of the Russian Federation (Perm Krai, Republic of Tatarstan, Republic of Bashkortostan, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Samara Oblast, Sverdlovsk Oblast and Chelyabinsk Oblast). The conducted analysis showed that during the analyzed period (2000- 2015) the health care system of the Perm Krai showed a high level of dysfunctionality, it should be noted a slight positive dynamics in the level of implementation of the target function of the health care system. The most significant factors affecting the health status of residents of Perm Krai are the social determinants of health and the population's behavior in the sphere of health saving.
The article discusses the essence of optimization techniques Lean and Six Sigma, describes the capabilities of evaluate the effectiveness of use of optimization technology, which could become the basis for a decision on their implementation in the company. This in turn could lead to better organization of employees; increase their productivity; to a significant economic effect.
The author analyses contradictions identified in the talent management literature. These contradictions are called "theoretical dilemmas". Analyzing scientific and practical literature the author distinguishes five dichotomous pairs, which often characterize talent management as an inherently contradictory phenomenon. These dichotomies raise such the fundamental issues as: 1) innate or acquired talent, 2) inclusive or exclusive approach to a talent management system, 3) internal or external source of talents, 4) internal or external motivation of talents, 5) differentiation on the basis of strategic jobs or talents. The author suggests a new approach to overcome the dichotomies introducing the notion "loci" (single – "locus"), which allows us to consider a number of identified dilemmas that arise in discussions on the terms "talent" and "talent management", in the light of the strategic choice of the organization leaders. So, in line with the dilemmas discussed the author identifies five pairs of loci of talent management system, such as: 1) nature, 2) source, 3) selection, 4) motivation, 5) differentiation. The author concludes that attempts to make a talent management system universal and to find the only talent management system are the major sources of controversy. Indeed, the diversity of approaches to talent management is stipulated by country, cultural, and industrial, and professional characteristics. And tensions identified in the literature can be overcome by taking into account the external and internal contexts of organizations. The author suggests the further ways of development of the research.