“The best man in the world”: Attitudes toward personality traits
This paper addresses the problem of attitudes toward traits, a bipolar evaluative construct. It is argued that attitude toward traits is a supplementary characteristic for conventional personality traits. In this regard, a second dimension of personality traits emerges where each trait can be characterized on another level, a level of attitudes. The study also demonstrates the psychometric utility of a Russian version of the Big Five Inventory (BFI; John, Donahue & Kentle, 1991; John, Naumann & Soto, 2008). The secondary factor structure of the Big Five corresponding to the hypothesis on stability/plasticity (DeYoung, Peterson, & Higgins, 2002) was obtained. The BFI was also shown to be employed as a tool to measure attitudes toward traits, and the five-factor structure was replicated as applied to attitudes toward traits. Different traits demonstrated different sizes of relationships with attitudes toward respective traits.
The article reveals the genesis of the concept of «individuality». Also provides a description of the essential qualities, given their correlation with the personal qualities of the Big Five. We introduce three methodological principle of personality description, an example of identity based on the basic qualities.
The article reveals the findings of the experimental work that has been done in order to compare three Russian educational systems (traditional system, Zankov’s system and the system of Elkonin- Davidov) in their potentials to develop the junior schoolchild intellectual abilities and personality traits. The complex of indices (intellectual abilities and personality traits) has been identified to examine the educational systems. They are the indices of attention, memory, thinking, imagination and personality traits (achievement motive, learning motives and empathy). As a result of conducted experiment of the students’ development in different educational systems it has been identified that each of examined systems are ‘developmental’ however each develops different mental functions and operations.
According to the information from the 15th round of RLMS (Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey) the existence of law and order and fair courts are very important for Russian citizens. At the same time the considerable majority of Russian citizens do not trust the Government of the Russian Federation, the State Duma, Courts, Police etc. Some Russian citizens even contemplate breaking the law. We have tried to estimate the influence of citizens’ socio-economics characteristics on the process of decision-making with the help of ordered logit and probit models. We have established that the higher citizen’s level of education the more law-abiding the citizen. Women are more law-abiding, than men. A person with subordinates tends to be more trusting of political institutions and is less inclined to break the law. With the growth of income citizens trust the political parties and police less and are more willing to break laws.
Using data from Italy, Spain, and Germany (N = 1,569), this study investigated the role of basic values (universalism and security) and basic traits (openness and agreeableness) in predicting perceptions of the consequences of immigration. In line with Schwartz’s (1992) theory, we conceptualized security as having two distinct components, one concerned with safety of the self (personal security) and the other with harmony and stability of larger groups and of society (group security). Structural equation modeling revealed that universalism values underlie perceptions that immigration has positive consequences and group security values underlie perceptions that it has negative consequences. Personal security makes no unique, additional contribution. Multi-group analyses revealed that these associations are invariant across the three countries except for a stronger link between universalism and perceptions of the consequences of immigration in Spain. To examine whether values mediate relations of traits to perceptions of immigration, we used the Five Factor Model. Findings supported a full mediation model. Individuals’ traits of openness and agreeableness explained significant variance in security and universalism values. Basic values, in turn, explained perceptions of the consequences of immigration.
Meta-analytic research in psychology of academic performance proved that Big Five Conscientiousness and Openness to Experience predict scholastic achievements of university students (O’Connor, Paunonen, 2007; Poropat, 2009). But we claim that psychological predictiors of academic success depend on educational environment and can be culture-related. We examined 176 2nd and 3rd year economy and computer science university students in Russia with the Big Five – Ipsative version test (Shmelyov, 2010) and discovered that GPA and USE (United State Examination in Russia) scores are significantly correlated with Agreeableness (r = 0.15; p < 0.01 for GPA and r = 0.22 p < 0.01 for USE math) and Neuroticism (r = 0.2, p < 0.01 for GPA and r = -0,17; p < 0,01 for USE math). We suppose that the difference between our result and results provided by the meta-analyses mentioned above can be explained by the differences in educational environment in Russia and other countries. We assume that big number of classes and relatively small amount of individual and analytical assignments create the environment where Agreeableness and Neuroticism are important for the academic success.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.