Восприятие иммигрантов россиянами: эффекты когнитивной нагрузки, стереотипности и черт личности
Eye tracking is a non-invasive method that has proven invaluable in studying attention, cognitive control and other higher order mental processes. The term mental attentional capacity was introduced by Juan Pascual-Leone in the Theory of Constructive Operators within the framework of a neo-Piagetian approach to cognitive development, where it is also known as the M-operator. It corresponds to the number of schemes that can be maintained and processed in the focus of mental attention (MA) and thus could be interpreted as a maturational component of working memory. To our knowledge, no eye tracking studies have been conducted so far with parametric measures of mental attentional capacity, which involve evaluating the effect on mental attentional load on eye movements. In the current study, groups of adults and children completed all levels of MA load in two interference conditions (high and low). The results of this study show that the eye movements of adults and children during a cognitive task are affected differently by MA load.
The article is aimed at searching for principles of cross-cultural comparison of moral systems. We accept anthropologically oriented approach, and undertake the study of the moral guidelines that the Russian society translates to the younger generations. Comparative analysis of the Soviet and post-Soviet textbooks have revealed both quantitative and qualitative changes in the moral standards, appraisements and judgments to be translated to children: the representativity of individualizing moral foundations expands, while the representativity of those ‘working on the benefit of group’ shrinks. Translators of moral standards in the Soviet period had a generalized nature: a large, stable social community – the Soviet people, the state – are represented in this role in the soviet textbooks. In the post-Soviet period the situation has changed: the function of moral socialization performed by more personalized subjects – a small group, family.
The aim of the course is: - expansion of students' general humanitarian and professional horizons, - the formation of systemic ideas in the field of professional, intra-organizational and personal communications, - maintaining and developing the skills of successful professional and interpersonal interaction, understanding the features of managing one's own and other people's behavior, - acquisition of practical skills in the application of various methods and technologies of regulation and correction of organizational and professional relationships.
Academic achievement of school aged children is highly related to core cognitive abilities such as executive function and working memory (Swanson & Alloway, 2012). Although the functional brain correlates of working memory (Owen et al., 2005) and mental-attention (Arsalidou et al., 2013) have been examined previously in adults, little is known about its neural correlates in children. Relation between cognitive performance and brain activity needs investigation with measures having scaled levels of difficulty, for instance, parametric measures of mental attentional capacity (Arsalidou & Im-Bolter, 2017). Mental attentional capacity is the ability to maintain and manipulate information in mind, and can be considered as a maturational component of working memory (Arsalidou et al., 2010). The present study investigates the brain activation to task that measure mental attentional capacity in children using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).
In article the basic approaches to the analysis socially-perception competence of experts of high school libraries of nonverbal dialogue. In the given work the description of structural components of model socially- perception competence of information-library employees, abilities, the skills necessary for adequate perception, understanding and an estimation of behavior of readers is resulted.
Eye-tracking is a non-invasive measure that has been repeatedly used for studying attention and related cognitive processes. While eye-tracking is not a direct measure of brain activity, it has been shown to reveal information about mental processes, that may not be easily accessible through other measures, such as problem solving strategies. Mental attentional capacity corresponds to the amount of information an individual can maintain and manipulate in mind (Pascual-Leone, J. ,1970); it is considered the central maturational component of working memory (Arsalidou, M., Pascual-Leone, J., & Johnson, J. ,2010). This construct has been found to be closely related to other aspects of cognitive competence and intelligence (Johnson et al., 2003). Research into relation between eye movements and mental attentional capacity across development at the moment is sparse and fragmented and no eye tracking studies have been conducted so far with parametric developmental measures, such as the colour matching tasks (Arsalidou, M., Pascual-Leone, J., & Johnson, J. ,2010), which would allow to dissociate changes in saccades and fixations related to working memory load (n = 6) from those related to interference control and trace the maturation of these two processes. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relation between eye-tracking indices (e.g., number of fixations) and mental attentional capacity. Data from adult participants showed significant differences between number of fixations per trial for different levels of mental attentional load. Additionally, analysis revealed significant negative correlation between number and duration of fixations and accuracy for both the balloons and the clowns versions of the task, with the correlation being stronger for the clowns version, which contains interference. Interestingly, for each difficulty level, children generate a similar number of fixations regardless of interfering features, whereas adults make fewer fixations when the task has less interfering features. This suggests that adults may have different strategies depending on the task. Increased number of fixations may indicate that children favor a visual-spatial strategy, whereas adults favor a verbal strategy.
The theory of constructive operators was used as a framework to design two versions of a paradigm (color matching task, CMT) in which items are parametrically ordered in difficulty, and differ only contextually. Items in CMT-Balloon are facilitating, whereas items in CMT-Clown contain misleading cues. Participants of ages 7–14 years and adults (N = 149) were studied. We found significant model-predicted graded differences in performance between the facilitating and misleading tasks, across and within age groups, expressing age versus items’ demand interactions. Younger children were differentially affected by contextual cues. Even though both task versions were highly correlated with a well-established developmental measure of attentional capacity, CMT-Clown, which contained misleading cues, was a better measure of working memory capacity. These results show a need to estimate degree of misleadingness whenever performance levels in working memory or mental attention tasks are compared and interpreted. Developmental profiles of both tasks are discussed in terms of contextual differences and neoPiagetian stages of development.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.