«Важность сохранения наблюдательного поста социалистических стран…»: к истории закрытия консульства Чехословакии в ЮАР в 1963 г.
The publication of the documents of the Foreign Policy Archive of the Russian Federation is devoted to the history of closure of the consulate of Czechoslovakia in South Africa in 1963. These documents reflect the interactions between the USSR and its Eastern European ally related to politics in Africa. They demonstrate what sources of information on the situation in South Africa the USSR has possessed in the early 1960s. After 1956, when the Soviet consulate in Pretoria has been closed, Moscow did not have any direct contacts with South Africa any more. Therefore, any additional sources of information on the situation in South Africa were of particular importance. The documents reveal that the issue of the consulate closure was decided at the highest level of the Soviet party system. This episode characterizes the complexity of relations of the Cold War period, both between irreconcilable rivals, within the socialist camp itself and its allies
The article is devoted to the policy of the South african governemnt in the sphere of enthno-racial relations and state and nation building. It analyses the ideological basis of racially tainted legislation and the text of the corresponding laws and of official documents of the ANC and the governemn.t
The article analyses the policy of South Africa's government in the sphere of nationality realtions.
The paper is based on a vide range of evidence collected by a group of researchers headed by the author in 2006–2010. The nature and scope of the collected evidence allow arriving at veritable conclusions on the specifics of Russia’s image in Africans countries, particularly, on the positive and negative aspects of the influence of the image of the USSR on it. The research shows that, on the one hand, an independent image of post-Soviet Russia in Africa has not formed yet, first of all because of Russia's very weak information, economic, and political presence on the continent, what is a prerequisite for the formation of its image as non-positive by itself. However, on the other hand, post-Soviet Russia has partially inherited the image of the USSR, up to now associated for many Africans first and foremost with the support of their struggle against colonialism, neocolonialism, apartheid, and economic backwardness. An independent image of present-day Russia in Africa is rather absent than negative, and it has objective opportunities for constructing its image as positive by making African policy more active, mutually beneficial, and taking into account the specific features of African culture, including political and business. In the meantime, it is important to remember that these opportunities are diminishing as the generations of people who remember the Soviet Unionin leave the public scene.
The book covers the history of relations between Soviet Russia and South Africa, which, for many decades, remained hidden even from those who were a part of it. It is devoted mostly to the Soviet period, although the first, introductory, chapter presents the history of relations between the two countries in the previous three hundred years, and the last one the relations after the collapse of the Soviet Union and the establishment of the diplomatic relations. In the first part of the book the reader will find a detailed analysis of close ties between the Communist Party of South Africa and the Communist International, the activities of the South African NGO Friends of the Soviet Union, trade relations in in the 1930s and the cooperation and diplomatic relations during the Second World War. The second part of the book is devoted to the relations between the USSR, South African communists and the African National Congress during the cold war era: Soviet assistance to the ANC's armed struggle, its ideological influence on the anti-apartheid movement, as well as the analysis of both Soviet and South African ideological constructs concerning one another and their mutual policies towards one another. The last part of the book covers Gorbachev's perestroika period and the infuence of the changes in the USSR and of its collapse on the situation in South Africa and on the relations between the two countries.
This collective monograph is a study of one of the most important problems in today’s world: state and nation building in multi-ethnic and multi-national societies. It presents a comparative analysis of the experience of state and nation building in Russia and South Africa, two countries, which recently and practically simultaneously went through a period of abrupt social, political and economic transition. In both this transition resulted in an upsurge of ethno-national and racial tensions. Such an analysis is of great interest to all those who study similar problems both at an academic and practical levels.
The chapter is devoted to the life and activites of Jacob Zuma, South Africa's president from 2009.
This article examines the South African financial system for start-up companies, and focuses particularly on the support provided by the Khula indemnification scheme. Most research rests on the assumption that a lack of finance is the sole impediment to success of start-ups; however, it is unclear whether such government intervention can indeed foster successful entrepreneurial activity. We show that the current system provides profit making opportunities for both banks and consultants, but lacks focus on sustainable business development. There are incentives to create companies not in an attempt to be profitable, but rather as a means to gain access to government or government-backed money. We question whether a lack of finance is the primary obstacle to the formation of businesses. Instead, we argue that it is a lack of accountability and an insufficient application of business tools such as basic cost accounting that make entrepreneurs less creditworthy.